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McKibbin, T. Ireland, P. Holden, H. McKibbin Email: seann. McKibbin, S. Data are represented by grey points and traverse averages are traced by solid lines.

Nature Lugmair, G. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62, Huss, G. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 42, Telus, M. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 47, Spandler, C.

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Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Longerich, H. Journal of Analytical and Atomic Spectrometry 11, - Pearce, N.

What's So Exciting About Olivine-Particularly Fayalite?

Geostandards Newsletter 21, - Ogliore, R. Ando, J. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 31, - Davis, A. Hsu, W. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 38, Zhukova, I. Ito, M. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, Geochemical Journal 39, Qin, L. Trinquier, A. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72, Hutcheon, I.

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Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 22, Kruijer, T. Science Mallmann, G.

Abstract. Angrite meteorites are suitable for Mn-Cr relative dating (53 Mn decays to 53 Cr with a half life of Myr) using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) because they contain olivine and kirschsteinite with very high 55 Mn/ 52 Cr ratios arising from very low Cr jankossencontemporary.compant Mn-Cr and U-Pb time intervals between the extrusive or 'quenched' Cited by: 8. Angrite meteorites are suitable for Mn-Cr relative dating (53 Mn decays to 53 Cr with a half life of Myr) using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) because they contain olivine and kirschsteinite with very high 55 Mn/ 52 Cr ratios arising from very low Cr jankossencontemporary.compant Mn-Cr and U-Pb time intervals between the extrusive or Cited by: 8. Angrite meteorites are suitable for Mn-Cr relative dating (53Mn decays to 53Cr with a half life of Myr) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) because they contain olivine and.

Journal of Petrology 54, Fowler-Gerace, N. American Mineralogist Warren, P. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 46, Morse, S. American Mineralogist 96, Namur, O.

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Journal of Petrology 55, Wadhwa, M. Schiller, M. Brennecka G. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Earth and Planetary Science Letters Budde, G.

Clayton, R. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, View in article.

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The accumulated oxygen isotopic evidence for five distinct parent bodies of olivine and metal-rich pallasite meteorites summarised in Boesenberg et al. View in article Pallasites may represent samples of quiescent core-mantle boundaries Boesenberg et al. View in article Phosphoran olivine with several wt. View in article Mn and Cr are generally considered to be fairly neutrally partitioned between olivine and melt e. View in article This timescale, similar to or longer than the lifetime of 53 Mn, accommodates a cooling history comprising 1 rapid accretion, heating and core-mantle separation Kruijer et al.

Early cooling of the Main-group pallasite parent body to near solidus temperatures provides further evidence for early accretion of iron meteorite-type parent bodies, distinct from later forming ureilite- and chondrite-type parent bodies e. View in article However, Mn is compatible in phosphates, while Cr is probably incompatible Davis and Olsen, ; Hutcheon and Olsen, Figure 3 [ View in article This timescale confirms early accretion 0. A parallel trend is recorded by olivine geochemistry: olivine cores exhibit variable Cr and P Fig.

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View in article That Cr might move slower than divalent cations Ito and Ganguly,and that low silica activity can suppress divalent Zhukova et al. Data were reduced according to established methods Longerich et al. Mn and Cr are generally considered to be fairly neutrally partitioned between olivine and melt e. View in article Trace element variations and clear charge-balancing relationships between Cr and slow-diffusing Al in olivine McKibbin et al. View in article Figure 1 [ This timescale, similar to or longer than the lifetime of 53 Mn, accommodates a cooling history comprising 1 rapid accretion, heating and core-mantle separation Kruijer et al.

Despite this diverse mineralogy, the short-lived isotope chronologies of pallasites remain poorly understood due to depletion in crustal components plagioclase and pyroxene; Nyquist et al.

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View in article Figure 3 [ View in article Anomalies related to pre-solar, nucleosynthetic isotope components are even smaller and unlikely to survive planetary differentiation Trinquier et al. View in article Data were reduced according to established methods Longerich et al. View in article A parallel trend is recorded by olivine geochemistry: olivine cores exhibit variable Cr and P Fig.

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Pallasites may represent samples of quiescent core-mantle boundaries Boesenberg et al. Anomalies related to pre-solar, nucleosynthetic isotope components are even smaller and unlikely to survive planetary differentiation Trinquier et al.

View in article The difficulties of a lower Solar System initial, such as in Trinquier et al. That Cr might move slower than divalent cations Ito and Ganguly,and that low silica activity can suppress divalent Zhukova et al. Eggins, S. De Hoog, J. Chemical Geology- Due to the length of this table, only the first few lines are displayed here. Click on 'Download in Excel' to view the entire table. Tomiyama, T.

Rapid cooling of planetesimal core-mantle reaction zones from Mn-Cr isotopes in pallasites

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 38, The Brenham and Brahin stony-iron meteorites were selected because both have been assigned to the Main-Group of pallasites Clayton and Mayeda, and show similar distinctive olivine trace element characteristics, belonging to a low-Mn subgroup Boesenberg et al.

View in Supplementary Information. For Sc, we subtracted 0. View in Supplementary Information Huss et al. Huss et al. Data were reduced according to Longerich et al. Rather than using a filtered primary ion beam to sputter the surface McKibbin et al. Some models of the proto-solar disk indicate that the snow line was located about 5 astronomical units AU from the Sun, not far from Jupiter's current orbit. However, asteroids reside between about 2 and 4 AU, so either ice formed in that region or asteroids were delivered to that region from further out.

One mechanism for delivering ice-bearing asteroids into the asteroid belt is called the Grand Tack model, an idea developed by Kevin Walsh and colleagues at the Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado.

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Based on current models for planetesimal and planet interaction in the early Solar System, the Grand Tack model depicts Jupiter being affected by the presence of millions of planetesimals and slowly moving inwards from 3. Eventually the inwards migration stopped, probably due to the growth of Saturn, and Jupiter drifted out to its current location at 5 AU. The Grand Tack model therefore predicts that bodies formed beyond Jupiter, so beyond the snow line, were introduced into the asteroid belt.

The basic idea of the Grand Tack is captured by Kevin Walsh in this simple sketch.

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Eccentricity is a measure of how elliptical an object's orbit is; semi major axis is half the distance of the larger axis of an ellipse. Panel a shows the initial state, where Jupiter black circle labeled J and a not-complete Saturn black circle labeled s lie between an inner, somewhat warm region of the Solar System that gave rise to differentiated asteroids of assorted kinds, designated by S-type, and an outer region of C-type asteroids containing water and minerals formed by aqueous alteration.

Panel c shows the position of Jupiter and the now larger Saturn after they changed course. The big circles in the center depict the asteroid belt after the process is over, with asteroids from the inner Solar System and wet asteroids from the outer Solar System orbiting mostly in separate regions of the asteroid belt.

Courtesy of Kevin Walsh. How can we distinguish between ice accretion at AU or farther out with subsequent scattering inwards, as described by the Grand Tack model? To answer this question, our team used isotopic measurements and thermal modeling to determine when aqueous alteration took place in three chondrite groups. We focused on 53 Mn- 53 Cr dating of fayalite iron-rich olivinewhich formed by aqueous alteration. But before doing that, we needed to make an appropriate set of standards.

All scientific measurements need standards, and sometimes you just have to make your own. Olivine is a silicate mineral that contains magnesium Mg and iron Fe. Olivines with 2 SiO 4 to Mg 1. Meteorites are grouped according to texture and their major, trace, and isotopic compositions. Some show evidence for being heavily altered in the presence of water, whereas others have been heated up to the point where minerals start recrystallizing.

Fayalite is found within type 3 chondritic meteorites both ordinary and carbonaceous from the low-iron L and low-iron, low-metal LL ordinary chondrites to Vigarano-like CV and Ornans-like CO carbonaceous chondrites. An increasing body of evidence shows that meteoritic fayalite formed in situ on the ordinary, CV, and CO chondrite parent bodies. The low temperatures are also consistent with fayalite formation within a parent body, rather than by high-temperature nebular processes; and these conditions are therefore inferred to be present on chondritic parent bodies when fayalite formed.

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As such, the formation age of fayalite constrains when there was liquid water on the parent bodies and, through computer modeling, enables us to infer when and where the meteorite parent bodies accreted. The boxed area in the left image is enlarged in the right image. Most scientific studies aim to quantify the physical cts of a material or a process, and standards are crucial for such measurements.

We can have confidence that a meter-long ruler in Europe is the same as that in Africa and America because the length of each can be checked against the standard International Prototype Meter, which is safely held in France by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.

Previous work by a team based at the University of Tokyo, Japan, led by Naoji Sugiura and Wataru Fujiya, shows that standards need to have the same composition as the unknown for measurement of 53 Mn- 53 Cr isotopes using secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS. Their team made synthetic calcite CaCO 3 in order to date carbonates calcite and dolomite; CaMg CO 3 2 that formed in the presence of water on an asteroid, rather than use the magnesium-rich olivine forsterite Fe 0.

The ages they calculated were younger than previously reported, but still not equal to the young 53 Mn- 53 Cr ages reported for fayalite, which also formed in the presence of water in a chondrite parent body.

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Previous studies had used forsterite as a standard because natural, chromium-bearing fayalite is rare. To have a standard of the same composition as the meteoritic fayalite, our team made a synthetic analogue in a controlled laboratory setting. The details of how we made the synthetic standard are covered in the Bonus Material: Making Synthetic Standards.

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The values needed to be converted into meaningful concentrations. This is where standards play a crucial role.



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