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She was then, in fact, what is familiarly called a troiiin, whereas she is now one of the leading dofiseuses of the theatre. But she had often to wait for him until all tlie scenery had been put by, which frequently was not accomplished before two in the morning ; and more than once, after she had remained shivering with cold on a bench for several hours, he went away without her, and 55 she was obliged to walk back alone in the middle of the night, poorly clad and half-starved.

From demon she rose to the rank of page, and had the honour of holding up the Cardinal's train in la Juive, and at last was penailM to dame in a pas de trois with M"" Blangy and Albeitine.

Perhaps her two best crea- tions are Julie in la Jolie Fille de Gand, and the Countess in le Diable a Quatrv ; in the latter ballet, especially, she lias surpassed all her previous efforts as a pantomimist.

One evening, they happened to recollect just as the curtaia feli that they liad only called for her eight times, and, to make amends Cor their neglect, unanimousl y shouted until she came.

When she appeare it was in her modest travelling dress, which from having fallen into the water had shrunk terriblv and was verv short. Thus, the young artiste had to contend not only against the recollection of her predecessor, but also against the prejudices of her audience ; and yet, in spite of both obsta- cles and that they are no trifling ones any habitue of a French theatre well knowsher bold attempt was crowned with success.

A dark-eyed and dark-haired dameusc, with more agility than grace. Transplanted together with her husband from the boards of the Con- certs Vivienne to those of the Opera. Guillaume Tell. Les Hpgueoois. La Favorite. La Muette de Portici.

Le Serment. Le Dieu et b Bayadtee. La Heine de Chyprc. La Juive. La Peri. La Fille du Danube. La Tarentule. Lady Henrietta. Le Diable k Quatre. In order to obviate all necessity of changing the scenery, the forma- tion of the stage was as follows : several scaffolds were erected one above the other, the highest of which represented Paradise, and the re- mainder Herod's palace, Pilate's house, and the usual scenes required by the mystery. On both sides of the stage were ranged rows of benches, where the actors sat, each awaiting his turn to go on : the public never lost sight of them for a moment mitil they had entirely finished their parts.

The infernal regions were represented by a dra- gon's mouth, placed where in modem French theatres stands the prompter's box : this mouth opened and shutaffording the demons free passage to and fro.

The leader of this company bore the title of the Prince of Fools. He wore in public a species of hood, and was decorated with ass's ears. The perform- ances of the Enfans sans Saucy, who had also obtained letters patent from the King, were held on temporary stages erected in the market- place.

The Clercs de la Basoche invented moralities, in which were per- sonified the different virtues and vices; they were, however, allowed to perform but thrice in the yearand then only on occasions of public rejoicing. Satire was their favourite weapon, and their unsparing attacks on the highest nobility in the kingdom gave such offence that, by a decree passed by parliament intheir performances were prohi- bited.

On the accession of Louis XII. Presuming on this tolerationthey even- went so far as to paint upon their masks the features of the individuals against whom their satire was directed, but this audacity was speedily checked by a fresh parliamentary edict.

The Confreres de la Passion, finding that the farces of the Enfans sans Soucy attracted larger audiences than their own more serious per- 61 formances, engaged their rivals to represent comic scenes and burles- ques in conjunction with their religious mysteries 1.

By this means they continued to prosper untilwhen they were forced to quit their theatre, which was again destined to become an hospital. They then hired a portion of the Hdtel de Flandre, but were not suffered to remain there long unmolested ; inFrancis the First ordered that hotel, as well as those of Arras, Etarapes, and Bourgogne, to be demo- lished.

This compulsory removal induced the Confreres to purchase a piece of ground forming part of the site of the Hotel dc Bourgogne, and situated in the Rue Mauconseil. Here they erected their new theatre, which same building was afterwards occupied by the Italian company until the year : the leather-market, which was built on its site inexists to this day.

As soon as their theatre was completed, the Confreres petitioned par- liament for leave to recommence their performances, and a decree dated November 17,was passed in their favour, forbidding all other companies to give public representations either in Paris or in the immediate vicinity ; but at the same time prohibiting the Confreres themselves from representing in future the Passion or any other sacred mystery, and confining them to subjects of a less serious nature.

Thus, exactly years after the establishment of the first theatre, the career of the Mysteries, which had originally attained so high a degree of popularity, finally closed.

Among those performed during the interval from to may be cited the Mystery of the Pjssion, the Mystery of the Old Testament containing no less than 62, linesthe Mystery of St. One of these allegorical dramas is represented on the splendid drapery which formerly covered the tent of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy; the description of it is as follows. Dinner, Supper, and Banquet are three dangerous associates, whose temptations are to be resisted by all who would avoid falling into the hands of Apoplexy, Fever, Gout, and the like bad company.

Nous trouveroos bien des moyens De vivre, mais que y meltons peine ; En Uxture de soye et lainc Me cognoys. C'estbien dit, m'amye. Aussi de ma charpenterie Je gagnerai quelque rhosette.

When he invites tliom to his feasts, he tempts thein with dainties which they afterwards repent having tasted ; at the conclusion of the repast they are terrified by the appearance of Death and diseases of every kind, represented by hideous skeletons. Dame Experience, seated on her throne, sceptre in hand, is called upon by the suffering guests to relieve them ; she summons the three guilty ones, Banquet, Dinner, and Supper, to answer the charges made against them, the result of the tridl is the condemnation of Banquet to be hung ; as to Dinner and Supper, on the plea of their being necessaries indispensable to mankind, they are spared, but only on condition that an interval of six hours shall elapse between them.

The farces, or, as they were termed, sorties, of the En fans sans Soncy bore in some respects a great resemblanco to the moralities. One of Ihem was composed of eight characters, namely, the World, Abuse, and six sots or fools of different kinds. The plot is as follows : the World, weary of watching over mankind, falls asleep, and Abuse take his place. Waving his wand, he causes a troop of fools to appear be- fore him, and proposes to them to create with their aid a new world, over which they shall have dominion.

Among the most popular writers of sotties may be cited Pierre Grin- goire, immortalized in Notre-Dame de Paris, who was at once author and actor; his sottie entitled Y Homme obstine is a bitter satire against Pope Julius the Second. Ores, la mort t'est profitable. They nevertlieless continued to represent pieces, the subjects of which were taken from history and fiction ; but the public taste had in the mean- time undergone a change, and the tragedies and comedies written by Jodelle and others, in imitation of the Greek and Latin poets, especially Seneca, possessed far more attraction for the multitude than anything they could offer.

Four years before that time, some provincial actors had attempted to establish themselves in the college of Gluny, Rue des Mathurins, but scarcely a week elapsed ere their theatre was closed by order of Par- liament. The new occupiers of the Hdtel de Bourgogiie, from the time of their establishment untilwere frequently obliged to suspend their per- formances, owing to the civil and foreign wars which preceded the reign of Henri IV.

Some provincial actors profited by the license allowed during fair- time to open a theatre in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, on the occasion of the fair held in that quarter ; they were permitted to remain, in spite of the opposition and remonstrances of the comedians of the Hdtei de fiourgogne. A far more important infringement of the privilege granted to the successors of the Canfra-es was the establishment of a second theatre, which was opened a few years later, under the name of Tlicdiredn Ma- rats.

Previously, however, to its erection, and as early asthey had presented a petition to Louis XUL, praying that their annual 65 payment to the Confreres 'de la Passim might cease, and demanding the dissolution of that association. Their request was not complied with untilwhen, by a decree of council, they were recognised as sole proprietors of the Hotel de Bourgogne.

They originally per- formed in a temporary wooden theatre erected in a tennis court; their scenery consisted solely of a few pieces of painted sail-cloth. They were their own authors, Turlupin writing the prose of the farces, and Gaultier Garguille the songs introduced in them : the Turlupinades as they were called of the one soon became as popular as the verses of the other. Gros Guillaume deserved his name so well, that he was said to walk with his stomach : he tried all he could to hide his legs, rolling along like a huge barrel.

The attraction of their performances was so great, that their theatre was opened twice a-day, at noon for the scholars, and in the evening for the populace : the price of admission was about three halfpence. The success of these Turlupinades alarmed the actors of the H6tel de Bourgogne, and they laid their complain Is before Richelieu.

The Cardinal resolved on judging for himself as to the merits of the trio, and ordered them to appear before him. Their drollci ies so amused him, that he directed the complainants to admit them into their company, of which they speedily became the most popular members.

Unluckily for themselves, they ventured to presume on the favour shown them by the public ; Gros Guillaume, the only one of the three who wore no mask, imitated one day so exactly the look and manner of a certain magistrate, that the original was instantly recognised.

But a few hours elapsed ere the offender was thrown into prison, and a warrant issued against his comrades, who, however, found means of escape. They were all buried in the church of Saint-Sauveur. Ina company of actors from the provinces had established tliemselves in a tennis court in the Rue Michel-le-Gomte, but the inha- bitants of the adjoining streets petitioned against their theatre as a nui- sance, and it was closed by order in the following year.

On his death, which took place February' 17,four members of his company quitted the Palais Royal, and accepted engagements at the Hotel de Bourgogne : the remainder, being forced to vacate their theatre by Lulli, who had been authorized by the King to perform his operas at the Palais Royal, applied also for an engagement at the lldtel de Bourgogne, but were refused.

Upon this tlie minister Golbert, acting under the instructions of his royal master, who wished to restrict the number of theatres in the capital to two, viz. In their number was increased to twenty nine, and in the same year retiring pensions were granted to several performers. The execution of this order was, liowcver, delayed untilwhen, after no less than seven sites for their new theatre had been successively proposed by the comedians, and rejected owing to the remonstrances of the resident clergy 2the former effect- ed a purchase of a tennis court in the Rue Neuve-dcs-Fossds, situated in the quarter of Saint-Gcrmain-des-Prds.

There they erected their theatre, which bore the following inscription. This social contract continued in force, after having undergone some slight modiflca- tlons during tlic Revolution, unlil the publication of the famous decree of Moscow, inw idch is to this day the charie of the tlieatrc. Inthe King permitted the company to perform temporarily in the theatre of the Tuileries, until a new one, then building for them, should be completed ; they again opened with Phedre and le Midecin tnalgre lui.

It was not until that the theatre erected in the Faubourg Saint-Ger- main was ready to receive them ; and on their taking possession of it the King, by a decree passed in the same year by the state council, reserved to himself the perpetual proprietorship of the said theatre, as well of the ground on which it stood as of all the buildings connected with it.

The decree signed by Napoleon at Moscow, October 15,which ordained that the theatre should be managed by the societaires, under the surveillance of a commissioner appointed by the government, conti- nued in force untilwhen two private individuals, Mess''.

Buloz, the Royal commissioner. Molifere to the present day ; giving when possible the date of ihQ debut and death of each. We hope to be able hereafter to enter more fully into this very interesting subject.

Thorillifere Dancourt.

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Poisson Paul Ponteuil. Poisson Francis-Arnould M"' Dangeville. M"' Dumesnil. Monvel 1. We subjoin a short sketch of her dramatic career. Inbeing tiien ten years old, she became a pupil of the Conservatoire, contrary to the general rule, according lo which no one under fifteen years of age can be admitted a member. By dint of study she gradually rose from the humble position of a dibutante to that ot premier snjet, and, up to the time of her secession from the com- pany, was generally considered as the best actress of la haute comidie since the days of MUe Mars.

M'l' Plessy, since her marriage with M. One fine morning in April,some eight or nine youlhs were assembled on the liill of Monimartre. Among them was a young poet, engaged on a tragedy, the subject of which was the Sicilian Vespers. While Beauvallet sat taking sketches, the author began to declaim in a pathetic and whining tone the verses he had just written. Suddenly, a deep bass voice interrupted him; it was that of the would-be painter, reciting a passage from La Harpe's Barmecides.

On he went louder and louder, to the surprise of his com- rades, one of whom, previously lulled to sleep by the sentimental tone of the poet, woke in a fright, thinking a thunderbolt bad fallen on the old church of Montmartre. When Beauvallet at last paused to take breath, the whole assembly burst into a shout of applause, and, without even asking his opinion, decided that he should be an actor.

He was received by four professors, and commenced reciting the same passage from the Barmecides, possibly because he knew no other. At the third line, two of the professors looked at one another, wondering where such a voice came from, and never imagining that the thin and delicate-looking creature before them could have anything to do with it.

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Nothing daunted, Beauvallet went on bravely, until the two professors, more persuaded than ever that there was some trickery in the case, left the room. However, a third luckily remained who had sense enough to perceive that the voice was perfectly ualura], and, thanks to his support, Beauvallet was admitted into a class. At the end of the fourth act, the parien-e began first to murmur, and eventually to hiss; but on the curtain rising for the fifth act, Ihe audience became gradually interested by the powerful acting of Beau- vallet, and at last overwhelmed him with applause.

Inhe appeared at the Franqais as Hamlet, and in the following year was made societaire 2. Beauvallet is short in stature, and his countenance, though expressive, is far from handsome ; but there is a frank and simple dignity in his manner and bearing which is seldom met with on the stage.

We would particularly mention liis Horace in les Horaces as one of his best efforts : the haughty sternness of the warrior who sacrifices without regret every.

His voice is deep and sonorous, but its tone, when over- exerted, becomes harsh and grating to the ear : this defect is especially observable in his pronunciation of the letter r, on which he is too fond of dwelling, saying for frappez, fnrappez, etc. Anais AubtTl. In addition to his sterling qualities as an actor, he is also a clever painter, as well as being author of a tragedy called la Prediction, played at llie Odeon.

After quitting the Vaudeville for llie Varietes, Brindeau was engaged to replace Menjaud at the Frangais in orand was shortly after made socictaire. His creations since that period have been numerous, among the best being Bolingh-oke in le Verve d'Eau, and Cesar in le Mori a la Campagne. Perhaps we ought to add, for the beneGt of our fair readers, that M.

Brindeau's toilette is generally considered to be irreproachable. His personal appearance is very much in his favour : he has fine eyes, an intelligent and prepossessing countenance, a good figure, and gentlemanly manners. His voice is clear and agreeable, and he recites well : he is moreover almost wholly free from the awkwardness usually evinced by debutants.

His gestures are correct and graceful, and he only requires a little more confidence in his own powers, and a little more animation, to become an accomplished aclor.

Another young aspirant for dramatic honours, wliose first appearance at the Frangais took place in May,in Bayard's comedy of Un Menage Parisien. He has, however, a pleasing voice, and a slight and not inelegant figure.

FfiLlX Raphael. James's Theatre. The parts confided to tliis actor are seldom important, and occasion- ally consist of merely ten or twenty lines.

We believe him, however, to be capable of better things. A most careful and pains- taking actor, who, in spite of an ujankossencontemporary.comepos- sessfng exterior and a harsh unpleasant voice, has attained a reputa- tion which his sterling dramatic qualities fully merit, and which is the more honourable, inasmuch as it lias been wholly earned by long study 75 and untiring perseverance.

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Without being either a Talma or a Fleury, GeiTroy possesses talents which are seen to advantage both in tragedy and in comedy ; his acting is animated, yet free from rant, his utterance is clear and distinct, and his gestures are correct and natural. He la one of the few performers on whom an author may safely rely ; whether his part be important or trifling, he is equally sure to do his best, and to neglect no exertion in his power to ensure the success of the piece in which he plays.

His Appius in Virginie, and Feline in Un Honmie de Bien, are clever personations, especially the latter, which is admirably adapted to his peculiar powers. A young comic actor, as yet ill at ease on the stage, but not deficient in original humour. At the age of twelve he came to Paris, and studied there for six years, at the expiration of which he passed a year in a lawyer's office, and inunable any longer to resist his love of the stage, obtained admit- tance into the Conservatoire, thanks to the recommendation of Car- tigny.

He was called for at the end of the piece and much applauded, but was not engaged, there being no vacancy at the time. In the same year he played Due Alphonse to M"' George's Lua-ece Borgia, at the Porte-Saint-Mar tin, and acquitted himself to the satisfaction of author, manager, and public; he was not, however, permanently engaged at any theatre until the following year, when he appeared at the Ambigu, April 26, as Caravage in the new piece of that name.

The authors, little pleased with his style of rehearsing their drama, expected a complete failure; but the public, delighted with his fine manly figure and the energy of his acting, received him with such shouts of applause, that the over- joyed dramatists, after the curtain had fallen, with one accord pro- nounced him to be a Talma.

From that evening he became a standard favourite on the Boulevard, and his brilliant creations of Glenarvon and Gaspardo le Pecheur placed him in the first rank of melodramatic performers. He is, however, essentially an actor of drama, not of tragedy, nor do we think him in his proper place at the Frangais ; his energy is purely melodramatic, and his gestures are rarely classical. An efficient representative of middle-aged uncles, guardians, virtuous domestics, and other equally useful but equally unimportant charac- ters.

Bom at Saint-Quentin, June 30, He received the first rudi- ments of education in his native town, and afterwards continued his studies under the direction of a priest, now atrc at the cathedral of Meaux. It was the wish of his parents that he himself should take or- ders; but Leroux, who had acquired a taste for the stage from a perusal of the best dramatic authors, had already made up his mind to become an actor. But how to carry his plan into effect was the difficulty.

In order to act, he must go to Paris, and knowing his father's intentions with respect to his future career, he dared not tell him why he wished to go thither. At length, on the plea of studying for the medical pro- fession, he was allowed to leave home, and, once at Paris, he resolved to follow his own fancy.

His family, finding all remonstrances and en- treaties equally vain, no longer attempted to dissuade him, and in Juno, 78 18S8, he obtained admittance Into the Conservatoire. After this, as far as he himself was concerned, highly creditable essay, Leroux replaced at a short notice Maillart in la Femme de Quarante AnSy and Brindeau in le Man a la Campagne, and subsequently created Octave in Un Homme dc Bien.

As yet, he is more indebted to his natural quali- ties than to study for the success he has obtained; as yet he has acted much and studied to all appearance little : it now remains for him to reverse the order of things, to act less and study more.

Born at Bordeaux, December 11, Urged by some irresistible impulse, he repeated his visit to the same theatre on the following evening, and there, weeping over the sorrows of another of Comeille's heroines, were the eyes, still lovelier than before.

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Wilh this aim in view he began to study tragedy, and had in his turn the satisfaction of " seeing the bright eyes weep for him. His determination to become an actor was conGrmed by. Since his return thither he has gained new laurels by his creations of Louis XI, 1 and Richard in les Enfans d'Edouard, both of which characters are personated by him with consummate talent. He has also been deservedly applauded in Hernani, Ic Tisserand de Sego- vie, a miserable piece which his acting alone saved from summary con- demnation, and Vvrgxnie.

It must be confessed that Ligier is but little indebted to his personal appearance for his reputation as a tragedian ; his figure is short and insignificant, and his countenance, though by no means destitute of ex- pression, is far from imposing. This hope has not yet been realized, but we have little doubt that the intelligence and talent evinced by Maillart in most of his personations will ere long be considered a sufficient passport to pro- motion.

He has, however, some slight defects which might easily be removed, or, to say the least, lessened, with a little care and attention, such as an occasional slovenliness in his gestures and carriage, and a habit of constantly speaking in so subdued a tone as to be at times al- most inaudible. His De Silly, in la Fenime de Quarante Ans, setting aside the imper- fections already alluded to, is a clever piece of acting, and many of his other creations display considerable originality of conception, and ver- satility of talent.

A serviceable actor, who plays the steady matter of fact characters, which require a good memory but little talent, such as Clcantem Tar- tufe, and Ariste in Ics Femtnes Savantes. Useful in tragedy and in comedy ; endowed by Nature with a tall figure and a clear voice. A quiet gentlemanly actor, who has also the reputation of being a clever landscape-painter. Of his pictorial abilities we know nothing : in his dramatic capacity he has two slight defects, viz.

The celebrated actor Larive encouraged Provost, when quite a young man, to solicit a hearing from the committee of the Conserva- toire, in some of the leading tragic characters : he failed, however, in interesting his judges, who unanimously agreed that his shoulders were much too narrow, and his voice much too effeminate for tragedy.

No- thing daunted, he again braved the ordeal a few months later, by which time he had acquired a more correct idea of his own powers, and suc- ceeded in obtaining admission to study third-rate parts. In another year he gained a prize, and was subsequently engaged by Picard, un- der whose management the Odfon opened in In March,he made his debta at the Frangais, and four years later was made societaire : he is also one of the professors of the Conservatoire.

Provost is a careful rather than a brilliant actor ; he seldom excites enthusiasm, but is always seen with pleasure. His humour is drj', but 6 J 85 perfectly natural, and entirely free from exaggeration ; his gestures are easy and correct, and his voice is remarkahly clear and sonorous.

He is excellent as Arnolphe in. VEcole des Femmes, and one of his best modern creations is the hypocritical Malkieu in le Maria la Campagne. Nor must we forget his recent triumph in Samson's agreeable comedy, la Famille Poisson ; his performance of Raymond is an admirable piece of acting, worthy of Bouffd.

After leaving collegehe studied successively painting and architecture, which last profession he intended to follow. What was he to do? All her attempts to turn him from his purpose were, however, of no avail ; he was full of confidence in his own abilities, partly from being familiarly acquainted with the works of the principal dramatists, and partly from liaving been in the habit of acting ett amateur with a party of young friends, embryo architects like himself.

In the following year he went to Nantes, where he remained three years. During bis stay in that city, Gontier, the celebrated actor of the Gymnase, came to perform for a few nights at the theatre, and at one of the rehearsals treated the company in general, and Regnier in particular, in a rather overbearing manner.

There the matter ended, but Gontier did not so easily forget the rising young comedian : on the opening of the Palais Royal shortly after, Regnier was invited to Paris by M. Dormeuil, with whom he signed a three years' engagement, not knowing at the time that the kind friend who had recommended him to the notice of the manager was his old acquaintance of the Gymnase.

He had, however, scarcely been four months at the Palais Royal, when he asked M. Dormeuil to cancel his engagement. Monrose was thus left alone to sustain the whole weight of the comic repertoire, and the societaires were anxiously searching for some one to share it with him.

Some of them still recollected the Pasquin of Versailles, and offered him very advantageous terms, which M. Dormeuil, not wishing to injure the young actor's future interests, left him at liberty to accept. He had one great advantage over most debutants in having well studied each part beforehand, instead of being obliged to learn it as he wanted to play it. His first important original character was Jean in Scribe's comedy of Bertrofid et Raton, his excellent personation of which caused him to be promoted to the rank of societaire in This last-named comedy, which has been performed more than a hundred nights at the Franqais, owes most of its success to his admirable acting.

The other characters are cleverly drawn, but he is the centre of attraction : it is his inexhaustible unflagging gaiety, his extraordinary animal spirits alone, which carry away his audience in spite of themselves, and cause them to laugh and shout, clap their hands, and cheer until the house rings again.

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Regnier is, in the strictest sense of the word, a true comedian, never descending to vulgarity, nor losing for an instant the gentlemanly manner which distinguishes the actor from the mere buffoon. His countenance is both intellectual and prepossessing, and his voice is unusually clear and agreeable. In the spring ofhe performed for some time at the St. In his public capacity, his popularity is equal to his merits; and in his own domestic circle, his unaffected kindness and amiable manners have secured him the esteem and respect of all who are acquainted with him.

If a comic face can make a comic actor, Riche has every claim lo the title; his reputation, however, caimot be said to depend on his looks alone. He has a good voice, a lively and unembarrassed manner, and can make the most of a bad part, a feat in reality more difficult than it appears to be. He has succeeded Regnier as Oscar Rigaud in la Ca- maraderie, which is a more important character than usually falls to his share, and is played by him with much humour and originality. Bom at Saint-Denis, July 2, He was origmally clerk to an attorney at Corbeil, and was subsequently employed in a Paris lottery office.

In the early part of his dramatic career, he played at Dijon and BesanQon, and afterwards at Rouen, where Picard, then manager of the Odton, saw him and engaged him for six years. He has been Vice-President of the Dramatic Artists' Association ever since its first foundation, and no member of that admirably organized society has laboured with greater zeal and earnestness in its behalf.

Samson is one of the few really sterling comedians that remain to us ; his maxim is said to be that ' ' the actor should adapt himself to the part, not the part to the actor;" and no one who has seen him play can accuse him of preaching what he does not practise.

It is, indeed, impossible to bestow more care and attention on a part than he does : t6 his personations are so truly finished, so admirably correct, as to render each new character assumed by him a perfect study. Look, manner, dress, everything is exactly what it should be; every glance, every gesture is regulated with the same minute forethought, the same me- chanical accuracy.

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And yet, withall this display of art, his acting is eminently natural ; his personations are so life-like that you lose sight of the comedian in the character he represents. In le Bourgeois Gen- tUhamme, he is the silly, vain, and credulous citizen; in la Camarade- rie, he is the fond and confiding, but susceptible, old husband ; in le Gendre d! Samson's chief defect is his voice, which is naturally sharp and grat- ing : he, however, speaks with such distinctness that the lowest whisper is perfectly audible.

M"' Anals always has played, and will probably always play, the in- ginues, for which line of characters her diminutive figure and extreme gentillesse eminently qualify her. Old Time; Seeing her at a distance, and without a lorgnette, one would never imagine the disparity that exists between her own age and that of the character she represents; her figure is extremely youthful, her voice is fresh and clear, and her manner is charmingly graceful.

Her Duke of York in les Enfans tEdomrdis a most exquisite piece of acting, and she still plays Cheru- bin in le Manage de Figaro with as much vivacity and etpieglerie as she did twenty years ago.

Aulaire, became subsequently a pupil of the Conservatoire. Without being either one of the prettiest or most talented actresses of the theatre, she is a very tolerable soubrette, and deserves better parts than those which have hitherto been entrusted to her.

And yet, tame and common- place as they are, she has infused some life into them ; and, under the vivifying influence of her gay and cheerfulspirit, the feebly written phrases of her authors have seemed ahnost witty. Let M"' Brohan rely, not on these ephemeral productions, but on her old friends, Moliere, Beaumarchais, and Mari vaux; let her, by turns, be the saucy Nicole, the sprightly Suzanne, and the piquante Lisette ; and let her avoid as she would a pestilence such quicksands to her talent as her modern crea- tions in la Tutrice and Vn Homme de Bien.

Petersburg, she has since suc- ceeded the fair fugitive in several of her most important characters. That she has talent, no one who has seen her perform can deny ; but whether a sweet voice, an agreeable and distinct utterance, 89 and a graceful and quiet siniplicily of look and gesture arc sufllcient at- tributes to form an actress of high comedy, is rather doubtful. In this particular case, therefore, the public, though they may not be gainers by the change, can hardly complain of being losers.

Daughter of the elder and niece of the younger Baptistc. Previously to her being made a so- oVfatre seven years after, she married Desmousseaux, at that time an actor of the Franqais, but who had been originally intended for the bar. She then took the duegnes or old women's parts, in which peculiar line she is without a rival. The duegne of Che pre- seni day is too apt to overact her parts : with her comedy often de- generates into mere buffoonery, and dignity is supposed to consist in slifr starched attitudes, and an unnatural primness of look and manner.

She has but one superior, and that one not on the French stage, nor is it any discredit to au actress, however great may be her talent or reputation, to be pro- nounced inferior to our own incomparable Mrs. From this time, M"' Mante's merits were as unjustly depreciated as they had hitherto been unjustly extolled. Her voice is clear, distinct, and mordant; her gestures are correct and natural, and her manners lady-like and unaffected.

In her anxiety, however, to escape firom the drudgery of study and to act, she sought for and obtained an engagement at the Gymnase, where, shortly after the Revolution of July, she occupied a modest place in what was then considered the best company in Paris. It is said that the manager of another more important theatre, in search of a leading melodramatic actress, saw her there, but found her too young. I must engage her at any price.

Not finding any parts there to her mind, she broke her engage- ment, and accepted anotlier at the Ga! Creditors, however, assailed the manager on all sides, and the theatre was suddenly closed. She then appeared at the. There M"' M61ingue created a great sensation by her performance of Madeleine, in which she displayed many admi- rable dramatic qualities : it is indeed to her acting in this piece that she owes her present position at the Frangais, her return to which theatre was effected as follows.

Since then, her career has been less triumphant than before ; the opportunities afforded her of displaying her talent have been few and far between, and even on those occasions she has proved herself to be rather an actress of drama than of tragedy.

At length, May 16,she reappeared at the Franqais in the same character performed by her on her Orst Ubut, that of Sylvia in les Jeux de I'A- numr et du Hasard, and was shortly after received as societaire. After travelling about for some time from fair to fair the father being by profession a hawkerthe family settled in the environs of Lyons, from whence, after a stay of two years, they came to Paris, and established themselves in a poor dwelling in the Place de Grfeve.

Choron, who had established a singing-class at his house in the Rue Monsigny, and was admitted among his pupils. Ten months after, she began to attend Saint Aulaire's 1 class of declamation, and one of her first, if not her very first appearance in public took place at the Theatre Molifere, on which occasion she played Hermione in Andromaque.

Michelot, Samson, and Provost, but it docs not appear either that her professors entertained a very favourable idea of her ta- lents, or that they anticipated the possibility of her profiting to any great extent by their instructions. It wasi while playing one evening at the Salle Chantereine that she attracted the notice of M. Poirson, at that time manager of the Gymnase ; her acting pleased him so much, that he at once offered her an engage- loent for three years, at.

Key recommendations such as:- adopting higher-tier ecological risk assessment tools; a list of requirements for new innovative approaches before they can be used in regulatory ecological risk assessments; and the need for further research on how to deal with multiple stressors are also well founded.

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One of more holistic challenges for this document, is the breadth of remit. Currently it encompasses both prospective and retrospective regulation as well as different types of potential chemicals contaminants eg pesticides and general chemicalswhere the issues and the available data sets are going to be very different.

Therefore, one way to improve this document would be to consider restructuring the content to provide clear and specific advice to distinctly different situations eg Ecological Risk Assessment for Chemical Registration and Site Specific Ecological Risk Assessment, being 2 potential examples.

One of the ecological risk assessment chal- lenges for the pesticide industry is extrapolation of risk assessment conclusions eg between species, different environmental conditions and geographical regions. One of the tools recommended within this document to help with this issue is the expanded use of modelling, and again this is justified. However, another recommendation is for greater uncertainty analysis and application of appropriate uncertainty factor.

Consequently, a real opportunity is now missed to test, observe and understand potential in-direct and community level aquatic effects, both of which are highlighted as an area where more information is required in this document. The key issue here is there will always be uncertainty within ecological risk assessment and therefore can we really reduce the need for expert judgement as recommended, without having to continue to apply large over precautionary uncertainty factors.

The ecosystem services concept offers a suitable approach to determine which impact may be tolerable where and when. Established ERA uses a stepwise approach starting with standardized studies combined with appropriate AF and where needed followed by higher tier assessments and respective adjusted AF. The new EU document follows this approach and presents additional refinements in order to improve the realism of risk assessment.

This is certainly desirable; however, the additional data must not become standard requirement. The document describes when to ask for additional information or call for specific risk management actions; i. Only then specific action should be warranted. This general approach is strongly supported. The document refers to indirect effects. These occur as a consequence of direct effects. If there is low risk of direct effects, then indirect impacts are of low relevance. Only when direct effects are considered acceptable, more consideration should be given to indirect effects.

Site specific evaluation will improve realistic ERA. However, this may require a significant amount of additional assessments and should not be misused nationally or regionally counteracting EU harmonized approaches.

Trait-based approaches represent a promising tool capable [3DOTS] to complement taxonomically based assessments with functionally based assessment more significant in ecological terms. This is valid and relevant; however, this tool is only useful in the regulatory context if it is avoided that individual results from single species will override the trait-based approach.

Modelling has been included in ERA allowing to extrapolate risk assessments without the need of excessive animal testing; it will also address uncertainties more quantita- tively. This should be done in an overall realistic assessment; simply adding up various individual uncertainties has nothing to do with a realistic ERA. Marshall Unilever, Bedford, United Kingdom There is great potential for nanotechnology to be applied in a broad range of societal sectors.

New applications and product formats are likely to add to current emissions into the environment, e. Given the developing state of definitions and of characterisation and risk assessment methods, industry is faced with uncertainty over the likely success of new innovation involving nanomaterials and tech- nologies. Rapid progress is needed in these assessment methodologies in order to establish guidance on data requirements and how they should be interpreted for risk-based decisions.

In the meantime communication with stakeholders needs particular care to ensure that both research and safety related data can be considered in context of the risks to man and the environment.

This presentation will elaborate on developments from an industry perspective.

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Doa2, T. There is no specific legislation in the European Union EU or theUSAon nanotechnology or nanomaterials, but legislation on worker protection, environmental legislation, chemical legislation, specific products legislation etc.

Any introduction of provisions specific to nanomaterials requires the adoption of a definition of nanomaterial. Although in October the EU Commission adopted the Recommendation on the definition of a nanomaterial, at this stage this does not constitute as yet enforceable legislation. In the USA, before a new chemical is commercialized a manufacturer or importer must submit a new chemical notification and a determination must be made that it may not present an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment.

SS Advances in methods for analysing nanoparticles in complex environmental media G. Von der Kammer1, J.

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Unrine2, J. Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicologi- cal effects of ENMs have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media. The analysis of ENMs differs from traditional chemical analysis because both chemical and physical forms must be considered. Because ENMs are present as colloidal sys- tems, their appearance and physicochemical properties are dependent on the surrounding conditions and may be of transient character.

By trying to observe, isolate, and quan- tify ENMs their physicochemical properties may be changed, making the analysis extremely susceptible to artifacts. Separa- tion and isolation of the ENPs is therefore necessary in most cases. The basic idea of most currently developed methods is to provide particle sizing capabilities by the use of high spatial resolution or chromatography-like separation techniques.

These core capabilities are then combined with material, element- or mass-specific detection. Especially high resolution X-ray, Field-Flow Fractionation and single-particle ICP-MS based techniques have made considerable progress because of their particle size and compositional selectivity.

It will also address in detail the challenges posed to analytical methods arising from the definition of Nanomaterials issued by the EU commission. We are well aware that aggregation is an important pathway for most nanoparticles, while for some, e. ZnO dissolution has been shown to be an important control on exposure. These transformations will depend both on the physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticle, such as size, surface charge and the presence of coatings, and of the receiving environment, such as ionic strength, pH, and its chemical composition including both dissolved and colloidal organic and inorganic components.

Because of the difficulty in working with what could be termed environmental concentrations of nanoparticles, studies of their fate and toxicity have for the most part been undertaken at parts per million concentrations where both the chemical and physicochemical measurements are more reliable, and usually in controlled synthetic water, sediments and soil matrices.

Interactions with organic matter have usually been studied using additions of standardhumic acids. More recently, studies with natural waters, sediments and soils have been undertaken. Here their fate and potential toxicity can dramatically change as a result of aggregation of nanoparticles with natural mineral and organic colloids heteroag- gregation whose concentrations are likely to exceed those of the nanoparticles, as distinct from homoaggregation with the same nanoparticles.

Heteroaggregation will change the surface charge and mobility of nanomaterials and based on the low bioavailability of natural colloids, is likely to reduce toxicity to natural biota. Such reactions will also occur during wastewater treatment as will chemical transformations, e. Examples will be presented. The challenge will be to link the exposure concentrations determined under these more realistic environmental scenarios to bioaccumulation and potential toxicity, so that risk assessments and life cycle models can provide more reliable predictions for environmental managers.

These responses are from different levels of biological organisation from the molecular level to whole organisms; which in turn may be extrapolated to imply population level effects. However, while there is general agreement that many of the existing regulatory test methods may be adapted or modified to work with nanomaterials, less attention has been given to the underlying biologi- cal responses.

This paper aims to critically evaluate the scientific rationale behind the selection of biological responses as end points for ecotoxicity tests with nanomaterials, and asks whether or not all the important biological responses have been considered in the testing strategy. Ideally, a mechanistic explanation should associate any given biological response with the exposure, but this understanding is lacking for many materials and organisms.

Biological responses are time-dependent and for many materials the sequence of exposure, bioavailability, uptake kinetics, and the onset of the biological response has not been verified. An association between the presence of the nanomate- rial in the tissue and the biological response the target organ approach is not the only paradigm to consider, with secondary toxicity and latent effects also possible. Evidence is emerging that some of the traditional end points in regulatory tests, such as growth or survival, may not be the most sensitive measurements for nanomaterials.

However, alternative biochemical, genetic, and other molecular assays that rely on the presence of the test substance being inside the cell may be less sensitive than expected if the na- nomaterial is not available to the internal compartments.

It is therefore vital to understand the body distribution, target organ and sub-cellular localisation of the materials in order to identify the relevance of each response. Finally, there are many challenges for determining ecotoxicological responses in field-collected samples from real ecosystems; including linking exposure with a nano-specific biological effect sand differentiating the nano-effect within a mixture of chemicals.

SS Human needs, biodiversity and ecosystem services - contradiction or common grounds? Facing sustainability challenges at the third millenium Introduction to the problem: A. In particular, food commerce has been increased to satisfy increasing demands of their populations, resulting in a less controlled grow of food production, particularly food commodities.

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This higher demand of commodities has been partially satisfied by improving the production technology but also increasing cultivated areas, which result in the use of areas previously occupied by wild biota.

Modern agricultural practices make intensive use of agro- chemicals to warrantee both productivity and health of cultivars. On the other hand, cattle production uses veterinary drugs, accelerated grow systems feed lot and similarsometimes using non authorized anabolic products.

Within this framework, South America SA is probably the area showing the highest and fastest increase in food produc- tion, which result in almost uncontrolled augment of areas dedicated to the production of soya and crops. Particularly Brazil and Argentina but also Uruguay and Chile have been strongly increased their national incomes arising from the exportation of food commodities, in addition to a growing production of bio-fuels.

The increase of interna- tional prices for soya and maize have been the main argument used for small and big farmers to increase the cultivated area, affecting native forest, spreading agrochemicals in the proximity of cities, controlling pests and weeds but also affecting non target organisms.

During this short introduction some figures on the growing demand on food commodities, as stated by FAO UN will be presented, with particular emphasis in the production of Latin American Countries LAC. The main goal of this introductory speech is raising questions on the environmental cost that this increased production is causing in comparison with economical benefits arising from the exportation of food commodities from LAC.

SS The expansion of agricultural frontiers and its consequences on the environment. The nega- tive effect of human intervention on habitat and biodiversity would have increased and the water-use efficiency decreased. However erosion and pollution risk are today lower than those of the midth century. Regarding agrochemicals, quantities and qualities of pesticides used inArgentinavary with the productive system.

Pedological and climatic characteristics of the Argentinean regions determine the kind and extension of agricultural activities. This system is based on the direct seeding technique with the application of the herbicide glyphosate, and technical endosulfan and a-cypermethrin as insecticides. On the other hand, Patagonian agriculture is almost exclusively based on the fruit and wine production concentrated mainly on theRio Negrowatershed. The historical and current use of pesticides in the area is reflected on the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in biotic and abiotic matrices from theRio NegroValleywith a clear predominance of residues of DDTs followed by endosulfans.

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The intensive and increased agriculture devel- oped inArgentinaduring the last 20 years lead to different effects on biota. Mass mortality of Swainsons hawks occurred inArgentinadue to monocrotophos during and recent investigations in thePampasshowed that bird species richness tends to correlate negatively with annual crops.

Non- target species from other ecosystems like the aquatic could suffer the negative consequences of the pesticides. Environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan have been demonstrated that exert oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histological damage in native fish and wetland macrophytes in laboratory experiments.

Therefore, residues of this pesticide in freshwater ecosystems are expected to damage wildlife at organism or even more at population level. Navarra-Ortega1, S.

Sabater2, I. Muoz3, X. Sanchez-Vila4, C. Conde5, Y. Pic6, J. Blasco7, A. Elosegi8, M. Schuhmacher9, R. Batalla10, F. Francs11, D. The main panels on climate change predict a future scenario of increasing frequency of floods and extended droughts in the Iberian Peninsula, mostly in the Mediterranean basin.

This will be added to the currently existing problems, and will probably affect the available water resources, their quality, the functioning of associated ecosystems, especially rivers and their aquifers, and the ecosystem services they provide.

In such context, SCARCE is a project that aims to describe and predict the relevance of global change impacts on water availability, water quality and ecosystem services in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula, as well as their impacts on the human society and economy. Hence, the project has assembled a multidisciplinary team of leading scientists in the fields of hydrology, geomorphology, chemistry, ecology, ecotoxicology, economy, engineering and modelling, in an unknown effort in the CONSOLID- ER framework.

The project also considers the active involvement of Water Authorities and other relevant agents as stakeholders. The first tackles basic research questions and will define the long-term patterns and the mechanisms that operate in the hydrol- ogy, water quality, habitat dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function of Mediterranean basins. The second objective is related to the effects of climate and human foot- print taken both as key elements of global change that provide on the ecosystem services, rivers and streams, as well as the urgent need to implement and eventually refine the water management policies demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive WFD.

Therefore, the project emphasizes linking basic research and management practices in a single framework. The project has the external support of several Water Authorities and stakeholders.

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SCARCE is structured across a series of Horizontal and Thematic Work packages that coordinate the various scientific goals, as well as their interactions. Farr1, F. Perez2, M. Llorca2, N. Al-Harb3, D. In addition food may contain biological contaminants. A range of additives may also be added for a variety of purposes e.

Therefore, while consumers expect the food that they eat to be safe, as consequence of industrial development, pollution, and the climate change cause the variety of food contaminants to increase. Currently one of the great challenges in food safety is control the risks associated to mixtures of contaminants, which continuously are changing. Among the most prominent groups of emerging food contaminants can be considered industrial origin contaminants as perfluorinated compounds PFCspolybrominated bi- phenyls PBBsthe new generation of pesticides, plasticisers, siloxanes, and nanomaterials can be considered.

Many of them are of particular concern because can cause severe damages in human health, for example some of them are suspected to be cancer promoters. Other of selected compounds have been related to endocrine disruptor effects, or can be accumulated and biomagnified through the food chain.

In this talk, we will present a summary od current situation, as well as, the results of different research work carried out in our group investigating the presence of emerging contaminants in food. The strategies for their analysis including sample preparation, separation and detection will be presented. The results in typical food baskets of different countries will be compared. The main sources of the selected groups of contaminants will be discussed together with their toxicological data and concentrations reported dur- ing the last few years by other authors.

SS Impact of agrochemicals on the food chain. Research needs to guarantee safe and sustainable food production at the third millennium A.

Wunderlin1, M. Menone2, K. Mar del Plata, Mar del plata, Argentina Consequences of the intensive use of agrochemicals have lead to detect presence of these products in edible fish and, sometimes, in fruits and vegetables.

Though levels found are still bellow FAO guidelines for safe human consumption, there are many issues needing attention from research community. Particularly, the passage of single agro- chemicals or their formulations from plant-soils to higher animals cattle, etc. Also transport phenomena of these agrochemicals, which are affected by changes in the soil coverage deforestationneed to be addressed in the near future.

So far, Environmental Toxicology in developing countries, dealing with a rapid increase of agricultural frontiers, need to urgently address the above mentioned questions. Regional and international cooperation should be necessary to facilitate studies as well as to spread the concept of sustainable food production for future generations. SS Historical and regulatory background of soil quality assessment J. Main sources of contamination are industrial processes, waste disposal and intentionally applied chemicals in agriculture, such as fertilizers, pesticides and veterinary drugs.

Regulations dealing with the prevention and remediation of contaminated soils are aimed at the soil as an environmental compartment soil protection actindustries environmental regulationschemicals REACh, pesticide regulation, Nitrate directive or waste management Waste Directive.

Policies to prevent and remediate soil contamination use prognostic and diagnostic instru- ments. Prognostic instruments include soil quality standards and predictions of environmental concentrations of chemicals to manage intentional emissions of contaminants. Site specific ecological risk assessment ERA is a diagnostic instrument that also uses quality standards, such as intervention values, combined with other lines of evidence.

Since the ties species sensitivity distributions SSDs have been increasingly used in prognostic and diagnostic instruments, to determine e. SSDs seem less suitable for contaminants that have a very specific mode of action, essential elements and nutrients.

Some prognostic instruments, for instance for pesticides, may include higher tier testing in case predicted environmental concentrations exceed safe levels. More lines of evidence in site specific ERA may in- clude observations from mesocosms and field tests, as well as ecological knowledge on the role and function of sensitive species in the environment.

A Triad approach is often recommended, in which chemical, toxicological and ecological data for a contaminated site are assessed along converting lines of evidence. The European Soil Strategy has identified 7 additional soil threats, besides contamination.

These threats refer also to, biological and physical cts of soil. The Soil Strategy stresses the importance of soil functions by explicitly listing these functions as protections goals. The soil functions largely comply with the definition of ecosystem services, a concept that gains an increasingly central role in environmental assessments. The potential of this concept for assessing soil quality will be briefly addressed. SS Soil ecology and soil quality relationships J. Filser University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany Whenever dealing with environmental hazards, quality assessment of the respective compartment has been heatedly debated.

Buzzwords and concepts have repeatedly changed names e. Is there an ideal species number, community structure? How do we adequately compare soils with different climates, different keystone species? How do we measure resilience? What is the role of redundancy which appears to be specially pronounced in soils? I will summarize theoretical approaches, scrutinize some frequently used endpoints and quality measures such as BBSQ or PICT and discuss their pros and cons.

With respect to available and desirable data I will particularly stress the relevance of various test systems and endpoints, short-term versus long-term monitoring data as well as natural stressors. Trying to structure everything in a logical way and wrapping it with my own considerations, I hope being able to give some new impulses for soil quality assessment.

SS Predicting or measuring exposure and bio availability assessment M. Mclaughlin CSIRO, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia Predicting or measuring exposure and bioavailability of contaminants in soils has progressed significantly in the last 10 years. For metals, robust methods to determine specia- tion of metals in both the solid phase and in soil porewater are now available.

Bottom upor mechanistic approaches to predict metal toxicity across a wide range of soils have found less success in regulatory implementation than top downor empirical methods, largely because of the simplicity of data requirements and ease of calibration and validation of the latter.

It is important that the degree of complexity and data requirements of frameworks needed for Tier 1 risk assessments or contaminant screening values be borne in mind during development. Direct measurement of contaminant bioavailability is often regarded as a competitor to predictive models, but it should be realised these are best suited to different levels of the risk assessment process.

R Laskowski Jagiellonian University, KRAKW, Poland Although already some 20 years ago scientists were warning that ecological risk assessment ERA based on simple eco toxicological essays may be seriously biased, this is still the most commonly used methodology. Although the need for chronic and sub-chronic tests has been recognized to some extent in recent years, what certainly improved the confidence in ERA, these tests are also performed under standard constant laboratory conditions.

Moreover, even if these conditions are usually called optimal, this is not necessarily true. First of all, however, organisms are exposed to a whole range of suboptimal conditions in their natural environment, and these conditions are perpetu- ally fluctuating. Organisms are, thus, exposed to a number of different stressing factors which, irrespectively of any possible pollution, affect individuals and populations.

The important question from the ecotoxicological point of view is whether these non-chemical stressors can significantly bias the predictions of ERA. In recent years the number of studies showing significant and environmentally relevant interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors have increased substantially. For soil environment, temperature, drought, food supply, and pathogens appear to affect toxicity of chemicals. On top of that, also chemical factors of natural origin, such as pH and organic matter contents, can modify the toxicity of pollutants and, most probably, the interactions between toxicants and non-chemical factors themselves, making the picture a whole lot more complicated and difficult to study.

Despite these difficulties, it seems that neglecting the interactions cannot be justified any longer. This is proved not only by labora- tory studies indicating on significant interactions, which always can be questioned from the point of view of their relevance to ERA, but also by field surveys which actually show substantial discrepancy between field observations in polluted environments and predictions derived from laboratory bioessays.

I subscribe to this point of view and will review the arguments towards modifying current ERA approaches to include more complicated experimental designs, at least at higher-tier assessment procedures.

During the s and early s, there was consid- erable research undertaken to develop soil ecotoxicological tests e. SECOFASE project; Environment Canada soil methods program which used plant species and different soil invertebrates, including earthworms, enchytraeids, nematodes, collembola, staphylinid beetles, mites, centipedes, millipedes and isopods.

There has also been great methodological progress in tools for assessing the influence of chemicals and contaminant mixtures on ecological soil functions and microbial community biomass, activity and diversity. In Europe, South America andNorth America, these biological test methods have been further standardized for use in the area of soil quality assessment and remedial decision-making at sites where there is complex contamination in natural surface soils.

However, adapting biologi- cal methods that initially were standardized for testing of individual substances has been a challenge. There is also recognition that endemic soil microbial communities will vary from site to site.

To ensure the generation of high quality toxicity test data for effective application in environmental regulations or directives, standardized methodolo- gies, laboratory quality assurance and the proper data interpretation is needed. Overall, the quality of methods, testing laboratories, and data generated ensure that decisions regarding the protection of the environment are made using the most appropriate science.

This presentation will provide an overview of existing standardised test methods, focussing on invertebrates, plants and microbial community assessment methods. SS Can we realize tangible benefits from using complex omics tools when assessing soil quality?

Spurgeon1, P. Kille2 1 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom 2 Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom Omics approaches are no longer novel but rather serve as powerful tools which can substantially enrich and enhance ecotoxicological investigations. Some proteomic and metabolomic methods have exploited for approaching 20 years whilst after a decade of the exploitation of microarrays based gene measurements we may soon see this technology retired in deference to the more robust New Generation Sequencing based digitial transcriptomics.

The maturation of some of these technologies provides an op- portunity to appraise what has been learnt so far during their application for chemical hazard assessment. An appraisal of this type considering aquatic ecosystems, and espe- cially fish Fent and SumpterAquat. In this paper, we will discuss the current status and application of systems biology methods for assessing the biological consequences of soil contamination.

The analysis will start from an assessment of the lessons learnt from traditional single biomarker analysis conducted at the Avonmouth smelter contaminated site e. An understanding of biomarker sensitivity and variability can lead to hypotheses related to micro-evolutionary processes that can be tested either through exquisitely targeted analysis or genome wide screening. Such analyses can use standard methods or the emerging potential of Next Generation Sequencing.

Although often forgotten in the push to move to expression analysis, the genome resources generated as precursors to expression profiling can in themselves offer a resource from which to identify potential mode and mechanisms of action coupled to the biological effects associated with chemical exposure. Linking wider gene expression analysis to physiological observations can provide support for physiological models that categorise chemicals according to their effects on relevant endpoints.

Finally, the holy grail of diagnostic based monitoring can become a reality provided that the test case is clearly defined and the molecular assessment is supported by sound environmental chemistry and anchored to physiological analysis of the monitored population s. SS Case study 1: prognostic - risk assessment of plant protection products F. The proposal was evaluated for four substances and a metabolite using public available data.

A tiered approach was followed for exposure and effect assessment. In this contribution it is discussed whether sufficient knowledge and methods is available to ensure the basic principles of a tiered approach for in-soil risk assessment. For the effect assessment protection goals were defined. The relation between the protection goals used and soil health status is discussed. S Site-Specific ecological risk assessment.

The various cts of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry- ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutantsor in short LIBERA- TION. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific disciplines. Among those, honeybees belong to the most important pollinators.

In Europe and North America a decline in the number of managed honeybee colonies is reported which may have a severe ecological and economic impact. There are indications that the increased colony losses are not caused by a single factor but by an interaction between several agents. To better under- stand these interactions we have developed a computer model, simulating the dynamics of a single honeybee colony.

In order to keep computational time low but to allow for flexibility in the decision-making, we combined a cohort-based population model with an agent-based foraging module. Crop maps defining the availability of food sources can be used in a separate, spatially explicit landscape model to allow the application of realistic foraging scenarios with specifically defined nectar and pollen flows over time.

In this talk we will describe and explain the models design and present output for the colony dynamics under scarce and abundant forage scenarios, with and without varroa as well as for hypothetical scenarios of pesticide exposure and effects. SS Using population models to determine the impact of herbicides on endangered species: an example with langes metalmark butterflies at the Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge, California J.

Stark1, C. The butterfly was listed as an endangered species on June 1, Invasive plants significantly impact the few remaining acres of habitat at the Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge.

Plant control measures include mowing, hand pulling, fire, and herbi- cides. In Marchthe Recovery Branch of the Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office asked the Environmental Contaminants Division to design experiments to test effects of herbicide treatments on larvae of other subspecies of metalmark butterfly.

Due to the lack of literature regarding butterflies and herbicide direct toxicity and the declines in native butterflies it is quite clear that a study evaluating the effects of herbicides on butterflies was necessary. The effects of these herbicides on Langes Metalmark population dynamics were determined using stochastic matrix population models population vi- ability analysis and will be discussed in this presentation.

Bednarska1, P. Edwards1, R. Sibly2, P. Thorbek1 1 Syngenta, Bracknell, United Kingdom 2 University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom Current risk assessment for mammals is based on external exposure measurements, but it has long been acknowledged that effects of toxicants are better correlated with systemically available dose, which depends on many factors, e.

Toxicokinetic TK models are mathematical descriptions of these processes and can be used to refine risk assessments. In tox- icological studies of pesticides and biocides, little internal dose data are routinely generated, and the use of toxicokinetic models in risk assessment for pesticides is relatively new. Moreover, for risk assessment of pesticides, the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic should be interpreted in the context of potential exposure in the field.

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