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After decades of nationalistic indoctrination, most citizens self-identify as Turks regardless of ethnic background. Some of the major non-Turkish ethnic groups-the Kurds in the southeast, the Arabs in the south, the Laz of the western Black Sea coast, and the Georgians in the northeast and northwest-express double identities. Location and Geography. Turkey occupies Asia Minor and a small portion of Europe. Its area is , square miles , square kilometers. Militarily Ankara was less exposed and more easily defended than Istanbul. Turkey has 4, miles of coastline.

Learning a few sayings earns you great respect, but do not sweat the small stuff, because to the Turks, you are a welcome guest in their country. In direct disbelief of Islamic traditions, the Nazar Boncugu, also known as the evil eye is in offices, homes, in transport and businesses. Turks believe this talisman wards off evil and these days, as well as featuring heavily in Turkish culture, it is one of the top recommended souvenirs to buy. Likewise, when a baby is born, friends and family will often give it an evil eye for protection.

Turks adore children, so do not be surprised if your kid receives their undivided attention. The children also increase family size, so represent a symbol of increased strength. Pregnancy is the next natural thing to do after marriage and anybody shunning parenthood, or unable to conceive can become the target of gossip, or socially questioned in some regions. Since pregnancy is an assumed must, many traditions revolve around it such as cravings or determining the sex, although, in modernized areas, couples are turning to the medical profession to find out the sex of their child.

In smaller villages, some mother stay indoors for 40 days to regain health and help their new-borns with a good start in life. Food is an integral part of Turkish society. Each meal is a gift from Allah to enjoy, and not waste, so Turkish women often spend hours in the kitchen, with painstaking and intense recipes. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day and typically includes eggs, cucumbers, tomatoes, and olives but never forget the bread, at either breakfast or other mealtimes.

Some Turks even refuse to sit down to a meal without it. Circumcision is still a religious requirement in many parts of the country but thankfully, practises have improved during the last century. In history, it was not unheard of for a local elder to perform the ritual on the kitchen table but especially in the western parts of the country, more people are opting for hospital procedures. To mark the occasion, traditionally seen as the transition to a fully blooded male, a present like a memorable watch is given to the boy.

This tradition stemming from the Roman public bathhouses and modified by the Ottomans, has split into two. Certain Turkish baths are touristic orientated because westerners prefer to wear swimming costumes while others cater for the local community in the tradition way and this is seen in the weekly practise of women only day.

People enter naked or wear a swimming costume, to sit in the sauna while dosing down with cold water. A scrub down with a lofar and plenty of soapsuds is good exfoliation of dead skin and the optional choice of a body massage is usually offered in the touristic bathhouses.

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In every Turkish home, carpets and rugs sit proudly on the floors. With elaborate decoration, the handmade carpets have also become popular holiday souvenirs. Stemming from the days of the nomadic tribes, unfortunately, some rogue salespersons sell fake Turkish carpets.

Turks are hospitable and often invite newfound friends around to their house for a dinner party. Visitors are given slippers, so they can leave their shoes at the door and copious amounts of food will be offered of which it is rude to refuse.

During this time, a gift is not expected but if you intend to adhere to the popular western culture of bringing a bottle of wine, be sure to check whether the hosts drink. A lot are teetotal or only drink outside of the house. Contrary to popular belief, Turks only drink their version of coffee on a few days during the week.

A common feature in most villages, towns, and cities are the men only teahouses where they gather to drink tea and play games such as OK. Otherwise, tea gardens are popular for families and females, especially on the weekends. Tolga Ertukel, owner and manager of Turkey Homes says. When visiting Turkey, keep an eye out for the local customs and traditions and you will be pleasantly surprised at how much they can enhance your holiday.

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If you're looking for the highest quality matches, these are the 5 best Turkish dating sites and apps to try: Siberalem. One of the oldest dating sites in Turkey, Siberalem has been around since It's packed with beautiful Turkish women, but unless you speak Turkish you'll need a little help in the translation department. The Sanliurfa (southeastern Turkey) branch of the Mesopotamian Cultural Center, a corporation established to promote the Kurdish language and culture, was banned in by the provincial governor. In , the governor's office in Istanbul refused the Kurdish Culture and Research Foundation permission to offer Kurdish-language classes. h?mm it depends on individuals and their ethics. For example there are really conservative ones. They are getting married after just one or two meetings with the.

The centuries-old liquid and ritual of rubbing your hands and splashing your face with it are engrained in the culture. Turks in the northwestern province of Balikesir avoid snails, claiming incorrectly that the Koran forbids their consumption. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Special dishes are associated with holy days and celebrations.

In Gaziantep, yuvarlama a blend of ground meat, rice, chickpeas, onions, and spices served with yogurt is a special dish for the Feast of Ramadan at the end of the Islamic month of fasting. In some of the southern provinces the special meal for that Fishing is an important facet of the Turkish economy. For the holy month of Ashurewhich comes after the Feast of Ramadan, many households prepare a pudding called Ashure to share with guests, friends, and neighbors.

According to tradition, Ashure must contain at least fifteen different ingredients, such as peas, beans, almonds, cereals, rice, raisins, rosewater, pomegranate seeds, orange peels, figs, and cinnamon. Throughout much of Turkey, wedding soup, a preparation of lamb meat with bone, egg, lemon juice, flour, butter, and red pepper, is served at wedding celebrations. Carbonated drinks have become popular with young people, and beer gardens in major cities have become hangouts for men.

Basic Economy. Turkey is self-sufficient in food production. Fishers, farmers, and animal husbandry workers produce a wide variety of fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and meat for consumers. However, malnutrition affects some of the urban poor and small segments of the rural population in the southeastern region.

Inagriculture contributed 15 percent to the gross national product and Turkey exports cereals, pulses, industrial crops, sugar, nuts, fresh and dried fruits, vegetables, olive oil, and livestock products. In the early s agricultural products accounted for 15 percent of total exports.


However, if one includes cotton and wool, agriculture's contribution to total exports is even greater. SinceTurkey has liberalized its policy on food imports. Daily products and luxury food items, especially from European Union countries, are available in most large cities. Most farmers produce for both domestic consumption and sale. Very few are self-sufficient. The vast majority rely on a well-established network of local and regional markets as well as large wholesalers to sell their surplus product.

They then buy food and manufactured items from the proceeds. Land Tenure and Property. Between the s an the government distributed more than three million hectares of mostly state land to landless peasants. Although no comprehensive property surveys have been conducted, it is believed that most farm families own some land. According to the data in a agricultural census, 78 percent of farms had five hectares or less and together accounted for 60 percent of all farmland.

Twenty-three percent of farms were between five and twenty hectares and accounted for 18 percent of all farmland. Fewer than 4 percent exceeded a hundred hectares, but they amounted to 15 percent of the farmland. Less than one-fifth of farmers lease or sharecrop the land they till. Sharecroppers generally receive half the crop, with the remainder going to landlords, who supply seed and fertilizer.

Most villages have common pastures for the residents' herd animals. In the past, southeastern Anatolia had feudal landlords who owned entire villages. Many large farms have been converted into modern agricultural enterprises that employ machinery, irrigation, and chemical fertilizers.

Such farms concentrate on high-value fruits and industrial crops and employ land-poor farmers. Since the s, the mechanization of agriculture has reduced the need for farm labor, causing many villagers to migrate to the cities. Major Industries. Turkey's economy is a mix of private and state economic enterprises SEEs. From A view of the ancient city wall surrounding the Midterranean city of Anlanya, Turkey. Since that time, a policy of privatization of SEEs has been followed. Currently, factories produce a wide variety of products, including processed foods, textiles and footwear, iron and steel, chemicals, cement, fertilizers, kitchen appliances, radios, and television sets.

Montage industries that utilize a combination of imported and domestic parts assemble cars, trucks, and buses as well as aircraft. Since the s, trade has played an increasingly important role in the economy. Turkey's entrance into a customs union agreement with the European Union EU in facilitated trade with EU countries.

The major export commodities were textiles and apparel 37 percentiron and steel products 10 percentand foodstuffs 17 percent. The major export partners were Germany 20 percentthe United States 8 percentRussia 8 percentthe United Kingdom 6 percentand Italy 5 percent. Import commodities included machinery 26 percentfuels 13 percentraw materials 10 percentand foodstuffs 4 percent. The primary import partners were Germany 16 percentItaly 9 percentthe United States 9 percentFrance 6 percentand the United Kingdom 6 percent.

Division of Labor.

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Most jobs are assigned on the basis of age, skill, education, gender, and in some cases kinship. There are many small family-owned and -operated businesses in towns and cities. In those businesses, young people, especially sons, are trained from an early age to operate the enterprise. Until the s, many young people, especially males, learned their skills in the traditional apprentice system. Today the Ministry of Education operates thousands of basic and advanced vocational and technical schools for males and females.

Turkey has numerous universities where students of both sexes study to become businesspersons, doctors, engineers, lawyers, teachers, accountants, bankers, and architects. Civil service jobs require applicants to meet educational requirements and pass a written examination. Turkish law generally prohibits the employment of children under 15 years of age, except that those who are 13 and 14 may do light, part-time work if they are enrolled in school or vocational training.

In practice, the children of poor families work to earn needed income.

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Aside from farm labor, underage boys work in tea gardens as waiters, auto repair shops, and small wood and metal craft industries. Underage girls generally work at home at handicrafts. Classes and Castes. The most important determinants of social status are wealth and education. The basic categories include the wealthy urban educated class, the urban middle class, the urban lower class, the large rural landowner class, and the general rural population. A university education is the minimum qualification for entry into the urban educated class, in which there are numerous substrata.

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Distinctions can be drawn between the urban upper and urban middle classes. The urban upper class includes several groups with high status determined by education, political influence, and wealth. Wealthy businessmen are accorded very high status, as are successful physicians, cabinet ministers, and many members of the assembly, directors of important government departments, and other high-level officials.

Since World War II, businessmen have challenged the old military-bureaucratic elite for power and social prestige.

The culture makes a large difference in the type of marriage ceremony and how the bride is courted. Turkish wedding traditions also include some marriages where husband and wife are determined after they are born, and there are some marriages still where a sister-in-law may step in as wife for a sister who is deceased. Therefore, when I moved to Turkey, I was in for a shock, especially when it came to the dating scene. Looking back, I realize my naivety was shining like a lighthouse beacon. I was 25 years old, single, very naive and had not considered researching cultural differences that I . The dating culture in Turkey may not apply to everyone, as its only a general picture of how dating are done in Turkey. If you curious about how dating is really done in Turkey, it's not bad to start find a Turkish lover.

Members of the urban upper class are generally westernized; most speak at least one Western language, are well acquainted with European or American life and culture, and have close contact with the diplomatic and foreign business communities.

The urban middle class includes most civil servants, proprietors of medium-size businesses and industries, many persons in service occupations, some skilled workers, and university students.

These groups usually are less westernized than the upper class and more oriented to Turkish culture. The urban middle class also includes virtually the entire upper strata of the provincial cities. There is considerable mobility within the urban educated class. The urban lower class includes semiskilled and unskilled laborers, low-paid service workers, and the urban unemployed. The high rate of migration of young villagers to urban areas makes this the most rapidly growing class.

Many migrants have difficulty finding jobs, and others work only seasonally. Many live in poverty in the shantytowns that ring the major cities. Urbanization continues as the rural population grows and urban industry offers better incomes.

Some 30 percent of the population are rural farmers, often referred to as peasants. Improved communications and transportation have brought them into closer contact with towns and cities. Educational efforts since succeeded in bringing the national literacy level up to Some eastern rural areas are still dominated by large landowners, traditional clan heads, and religious leaders.

Young villagers who migrate to towns and cities cannot find their way into the middle class unless they receive further education. Symbols of Social Stratification. Most men of all social classes have adopted Western styles of dress, including trousers, shirts, and jackets. Men and women in the upper and middle urban classes pay attention to Western fashions. They also live in high-priced apartments and try to possess Western luxury items, such as cars, electronic devices, cell phones, and computers.

They have developed a taste for Western literature and music and attend musical events and plays. The upper class favors European-language high schools and universities; the middle class is more satisfied with standard Turkish educational institutions.

Both classes prefer to speak an educated Istanbul style of standard Turkish.

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Ankara, Turkey is a fast-paced city. Most members of the lower urban classes live in shantytowns. Only a small proportion have graduated from high school lise. The women tend to wear traditional conservative clothing, including head scarves and long coats, even in the summer.

They favor Turkish and Middle Eastern music. The peasant and rural classes are the least exposed to Western and urban influences in dress, styles, language, and music.

They, like the lower urban class, tend to speak Turkish with regional accents and grammatical peculiarities. The women wear conservative peasant dress consisting of baggy pantaloons and head scarves. The government operates under the constitution.

All the constitutions, and were written and adopted while military leaders were in control. The constitution states that "Turkey is a democratic, secular and social State.

Its language is Turkish" Article 3. The constitution enumerates a long list of civil and political rights but subordinates them to considerations of "national security," "national unity," and "public morality. The constitution establishes a popularly elected single-chamber national assembly with full legislative powers, a prime minister and cabinet responsible to the national assembly, and a constitutional court with the power of judicial review. It provides for a president with extensive executive powers and legislative veto authority who is elected by the assembly for a seven-year term.

There is a wide array of political parties. It is illegal for parties to appeal to religion, advocate the establishment of a religious state, or claim to represent a class or ethnic group. In recent elections, no party has been able to win more than 22 percent of the vote, leading to coalition governments.

A governor vali appointed by the minister of the interior heads each province and represents the state. Locally elected representative bodies at the village, city, and provincial levels also play governing roles. Leadership and Political Officials. Most of Turkey's political leaders have been high-ranking military officers, university professors, or successful businessmen.

Many provincial governors are former generals or career civil servants who graduated from Ankara University's public administration program.

It has formal influence over governmental matters through the National Security Council, which is composed of the prime minister; the chief of the general staff; the ministers of national defense, the interior, and foreign affairs; and the commanders of the armed forces and the gendarmerie.

This body sets national security policy. Military leaders have been especially concerned about threats to secularism and the unity of the state and nation. Inthe militarily dominated National Security Council presented the prime minister, Necmettin Erbakan, with twenty demands, including closing religious lodges, enforcing laws prohibiting religious dress in public, closing some state-supported religious schools, cooling relations with Iran, and curtailing the activities of religious organizations.

Citizens often petition elected officials for favors or aid. Unless they are personally acquainted with an official, they convey a petition through a friend or sponsor who knows an official, a member of his or her family, or one of his or her friends.

Turkish law prohibits communist and religious parties. The parties range from socialist Democratic Left Partyto moderately conservative and free enterprise Motherland Partyto right-wing ultranationalistic Nationalist Action Partyto near-religious Virtue Party.

Social Problems and Control. Internal security and law enforcement are handled primarily by the national police in urban areas and the gendarmerie in rural areas. However, in areas under a state of emergency or martial law, the gendarmerie functions under the military. The national police are armed and authoritarian in demeanor. They have been accused of treating arrested persons roughly to obtain information or confessions during incommunicado detention. The government has instituted human rights training for the police.

The gendarmerie maintains security outside municipal boundaries and guards land borders against illegal entry and smuggling. Recruits are supplied through military conscription. Gendarmes have been subject to the same criticisms as the national police.

Turkey abandoned Islamic law and adopted the Italian penal code in Serious crimes include premeditated homicide, theft, arson, armed robbery, embezzlement of state property, perjury, and rape.

Political speech insulting the president, the military, and parliament has been criminalized. The antiterror law criminalizes written and oral propaganda, meetings, and demonstrations aimed at damaging the unity of the state. The death penalty can be imposed for certain crimes against the state and premeditated murder, but there have been no executions since Conviction for a serious felony can disqualify one from holding public office, voting, and practicing certain professions.

Compared to other Middle Eastern countries, the incidence of ordinary crime is low. The most common felonies resulting in incarceration in were crimes against property 8,crimes against individuals 5,and crimes against "public decency and family order" 2, Every year an unknown number of people are incarcerated for illegal political activity and thought crimes, such as advocating an Islamic state or cultural rights for an ethnic minority.

In addition to Kurdish nationalism, Turkey's security forces are concerned with narcotics trafficking, since Turkey is a route for the transfer of Coffeehouses are male domains. Military Activity. The Turkish military plays political, cultural, and security roles. Military leaders created the republic inreplaced civilian governments in an and forced a civilian government out of office in Because of universal male conscription, the military is a major national socialization agent for young men of different regions, classes, and ethnicities.

Since joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization inTurkey has maintained a large military consisting of land forces, navy, air force, coast guard, and gendarmerie. Init ha officers and enlisted men on active duty. Defense is usually the largest category in the national budget; from toit averaged 20 percent of total government expenditures. Inthe government estimated that Employers pay insurance premiums for work-related injuries, occupational diseases, and maternity leave; employers and employees pay premiums to cover illness, disability, retirement, and death benefits.

The government also offers social security insurance to the self-employed and operates orphanages. Local associations or nongovernmental organizations NGOs associated with mosques and crafts also provide welfare to the needy. It controls a huge investment fund of obligatory and voluntary contributions from military personnel and investment profits. It has invested substantially in the auto, truck, tractor, and tire industries; the petrochemical, cement, and food processing industries; and retail and service enterprises.

Through OYAK, the Turkish military became partners with foreign and domestic investors and shares their economic interests. Because of OYAK's investments, the economic security of thousands of active and retired armed forces personnel became dependent on the profitability of large capitalistic enterprises. Consequently, military corporate interests expanded into the areas of labor law, trade unionism, trade and monetary policy, corporate taxation, tariffs, investment banking, and related matters.

Other major NGOs include the Turkish Trade Association, representing the interests of merchants, industrialists, and commodity brokers; the Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions, representing employers; and the Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions, representing labor. In addition, NGOs exist for practically every interest group in crafts, sports, social issues, education, religion, and the arts. Division of Labor by Gender. Turkish law guarantees equal pay for equal work and has opened practically all educational programs and occupations to women.

Exceptions are the religious schools that train imams Islamic prayer leaders and the job of imam itself. In general, men dominate the high-status occupations in business, the military, government, the professions, and academia.

According to traditional values, women should do domestic work and not work in the public arena or with unrelated men. However, women have begun to work more in public. Lower-class women generally have worked as maids, house cleaners, women's tailors, seamstresses, child care givers, agricultural laborers, and nurses, but in the early s, about 20 percent of factory employees and many store clerks were women.

Middle-class women commonly are employed as teachers and bank tellers, while upper-class women work as doctors, lawyers, engineers, and university teachers. Only a small percentage of women are politicians.

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Men work in all these fields but avoid the traditional nonagricultural occupations of lower-class women. Men monopolize the officer ranks in the military and the transportation occupations of pilot and taxi, truck, and bus driver. In urban areas, lower-class men work in crafts, manufacturing, and low-paid service industries. Middle-class men work as teachers, accountants, businessmen, and middle-level managers. Upper-class men work as university teachers, professionals, upper-level managers, businessmen, and entrepreneurs.

Turks expect adults to marry and have children, and the vast majority do. Because men should not lower their wives' standard of living, they are not supposed to marry women of a higher economic class. People generally marry within their own religious sect and ethnic group, although interethnic marriages among Sunni Muslims are not uncommon.

In traditional Turkish society, the selection of spouses and the marriage ceremony were controlled by kin groups. During the premarital process, the individuals to be married played minor roles.

The rituals, especially the imam marriage ceremony, were essential for a morally and socially acceptable marriage. Inthe revolutionary Turkish government abolished Islamic family law and adopted a slightly modified version of the family law in the Swiss civil code. The new Family Law requires and recognizes civil marriage ceremonies only. It requires the consent of mature individuals for a binding marriage contract and prescribes monogamy only.

Even though the law prohibits parents from entering into engagement or marital agreements on behalf of their children, arranged marriages without the consent of the brides have been somewhat common. In a survey, The figures for the unconsented arranged marriages ranged from 7. An impressive This response category ranged from Today the vast majority of marriages occur with the couple's consent, but families still play a role recommending and screening potential spouses, especially for their daughters.

Even though divorce is not considered an Islamic sin, it occurs infrequently. Divorcees, especially men with children, quickly remarry, usually to divorced women. The new code eliminated a husband's Islamic prerogative of verbal and unilateral divorce and prescribed a court proceeding.

The law recognizes only six grounds for divorce: adultery; plot against life, grave assaults, and insults; crime or a dishonorable life; desertion; mental infirmity; and incompatibility. The evidentiary requirements are so substantial that establishing one of these grounds has proved difficult. A couple cannot divorce by mutual consent.

Domestic Unit, Inheritance, and Kin Groups. Traditionally, most Turks traced their descent and passed on property, especially homes and land, through the male line.

Even though most households have always contained only one nuclear family, the ideal household, especially among the rural and urban wealthy, was patrilocal extended, in which a son and his bride lived in his parents' home after marriage.

The basic kinship units are the family aile and the household hane. Household members normally eat together and share income and expenses. The next larger unit is the patrilineage sulaleconsisting of relatives connected intergenerationally by a common male ancestor. While patrilineage is important to old, noble Ottoman families and tribal peoples, it is of little significance to most Turks.

The traditional Turkish household is characterized by male dominance, respect for elders, and female subservience. The father or oldest male is the head, an authority figure who demands respect and obedience.

The Milk Bottle on the Rooftop

The mother is also respected, but her relationship with her children is warm and informal. Although supreme authority ordinarily rests with the father, the household is usually mother-centered. The mother, being largely confined to the home, manages and directs its internal affairs. The division of labor has traditionally been clear-cut, with women having responsibility for the internal home, and men providing the income and representing the household to the outside world.

Before the s, even grocery shopping was a male duty. In recent decades, much of this has changed. The new Family Law grants women equal rights to private property and inheritance. A larger percentage of women work outside the home, and educated women demand more equal rights. Women are very protective of their children. Breast-feeding for a year or more is common. The child commonly sleeps in a hammock or crib near the parents. Boys are socialized to be courageous, assertive, proud, and respectful of elders.

When they undergo a painful circumcision ceremony between ages 9 and 12, they are told to be as brave as lions. Girls are socialized to be modest, compliant, supportive of males, virtuous, and skilled in domestic tasks. Fathers are authoritarian disciplinarians; mothers are generally loving and nurturing.

Every woman rejoices when giving birth to a son, because that event increases her status in the eyes of her husband, in-laws, and community. She usually pampers her son, who remains close to her until age 10 or 11, after which he spends most of his time with other males and identifies more closely with men.

Mothers and daughters are especially close, as daughters usually spend much of their premarital lives close to their mothers, learning domestic skills: Generally, the father-daughter relationship is rather formal, with little public displaying of affection. Although a daughter or son may argue or joke with the mother, they are respectful and subdued in the father's presence.

During prepubescence, relations between brothers and sisters are free and easy. Later, their statuses change as the older sibling takes on some of the rights and duties of a parent. The older sister abla becomes like a second mother, loved for her warmth and affection. The older brother agabey assumes the helpful but authoritarian status of a minor father. In extended families, grandparents, especially grandmothers, provide a good deal of child care. School attendance is compulsory to age The first day of class constitutes an important rite of passage.

The children are dressed in black smocks with white collars and taken to school with pomp and ceremony. Most families that can afford it, keep their children in school beyond age Most would like to see their children, especially their sons, complete university, but this is rarely possible for poor families.

Formal etiquette is central to Turkish culture, governing most social interactions and the use of space. Turkish culture has an exact verbal formula for practically every occasion. Etiquette requires the pronouncement of the proper formulas for these occasions. Strict etiquette governs intergenerational and heterosexual interactions. Unless they are close friends or relatives, older people are addressed formally.

For example, older men should be addressed with the title "Bey" Mister and women with the title "Hanim" Lady. Younger people are expected to be reserved in their presence. Adults of the opposite sex are expected not to act casually or show affection toward each other in public. Friends of the same sex may hold hands and greet each other with kisses on the cheek. Upon meeting, men shake hands, but a man does not shake a woman's hand unless she extends it to him.

People are not criticized for being late.

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Business meetings usually are preceded by tea and unrelated conversation. Consideration for companions is important. One does not drink, smoke, or eat something without first offering to share it with one's companions. Ninety-eight percent of Turks are nominally Muslim. Homes are divided into guest and private areas, and it is improper to ask for a tour of the house.

The soles of shoes are considered dirty, and shoes are removed when one enters a home or mosque. Religious Beliefs.

Islamic tradition, ideology, and ritual are very important. About 98 percent of Turkey's citizens are nominally Muslims, of whom about 80 to 85 percent are Sunnis of the Hanafi school and 15 to 20 percent are members of Shiite sects mostly Alevi. Turkish Muslims recognize the standard Islamic creed and duties, but only the most religious fast or make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Four percent of Turks identify themselves as atheists, and 4 percent as agnostics.

For most Turks, Islam plays an important role in rites of passage: naming shortly after birth, circumcision for boys, marriage, and funerals. The state controls religious education and most religious personnel by supervising the schools that train Sunni imams and certifying imams as state employees who work in community mosques.

In recent decades, a revival of fundamental Islam has been supported by about 20 percent of the population.

A small proportion of the population participates in Sufi orders and brotherhoods. The most important events in the Turkey's Islamic calendar are Ramazanthe lunar month of fast; Kadir Gecesi Night of Powerthe twenty-seventh day of Ramazanwhen Mohammad was appointed the messenger of Allah; Sheker Bayram a three-day national holiday at the end of Ramazan in which people exchange visits and candy; and Kurban Bayram Feast of Sacrificea four-day national holiday held during the lunar month of Hajj Pilgrimage to commemorate Abraham's willingness to sacrifice Isaac.

As many as 2. Medicine and Health Care. Modern Western medical services have expanded significantly over the past two decades. The Ministry of Health is authorized to provide medical care and preventive health services, train health personnel, establish and operate hospitals and clinics, inspect private health facilities, and regulate pharmacies. InTurkey had 12, health facilities and a doctor for every 1, persons. The incidence of measles, pertussis, typhoid fever, and diphtheria has declined markedly since the s.

Infant mortality declined from per 1, in to 55 per 1, in In rural areas, midwives deliver most babies. Most urban dwellers have access to public health facilities, but many rural citizens do not. In the countryside and among recent migrants to the cities, folk medicine is still practiced. Peasant women learn folk medicine involving herbs, spices, prayers, and rituals from their mothers and apply it to family members instead of or in addition to modern medicine.

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Traditionally, some men specialized in folk medicine as well. The major secular celebrations and official holidays begin with New Year's Day on 1 January, an adoption from the West. Many people exchange greetings cards, and some celebrate in a Western fashion. Because 23 April is also National Children's Day, much of the day is devoted to children's activities such as dances and music recitals.

Victory Day, celebrating victorious battles during Turkey's War of Independence, is observed on 30 August. Both Victory Day and Republic Day are celebrated with patriotic parades, music, and speeches. Support for the Arts.

Nov 11,   Sex and Dating in Turkey One thing I have wanted to write about for a while in this column is the view of sex and dating in Turkey. I have watched (mostly) foreign and (some) Turkish friends grapple with dating and all its highs and-more often-lows, and have become endlessly fascinated with the jankossencontemporary.com: Victoria Khroundina. Mar 13,   Offbeat Places In Turkey That Are Highly Underrated. On the list of official visitors' stats, Istanbul old city, Ephesus, Pamukkale, Cappadocia and Antalya all rank as the most visited. But in this article, we look at off beat places that will interest people who want to delve deeper into Turkey's history, culture and traditions. Dating customs and traditions in Turkey. If you have ever been to Turkey, you know how charming men there are. Hot and handsome, they are able to win over a heart of any girl. But living in a culture stuck between Oriental traditions and European reality, they are not always easy to understand. Neither are Turkish women.

The Ministry of Culture has implemented a policy of promoting nonreligious Turkish and Western art. It provides a limited number of scholarships for the study of art and music in Europe, especially France.

The ministry also supports the Academy of Fine Arts and art museums in the major cities. Most artists come from the middle and upper classes in major cities.

Graphic artists rely primarily on major corporations and the upper class to buy their work. They sell through private exhibition and a limited number of art shops. Traditional craft artists who produce ceramics, rugs and kilims, brass and copper ornaments, and embroidery have a broader market for their work.

Most sculptors rely largely on state commissions. Until the middle of the nineteenth century, Turkish literature centered on the Ottoman court, which produced poetry and some prose.

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This literature represented a fusion of Persian, Arabic, and Turkish classical styles. Western influences were introduced in the s by a group of intellectuals who attempted to combine Western cultural forms with a more simple form of the Turkish language.

This westernizing trend continued throughout the nineteenth century and became more pronounced just before World War I. Afterthe republic produced an impressive number of novelists, poets, singers, musicians, and artists. Orhan Veli generally is considered the father of modern Turkish poetry, which has been characterized by a rebellion against rigidly prescribed forms and a preoccupation with immediate perception.

Some poets have experimented with obscurantist forms and ideas; many others have expressed concern for social democratic issues. Graphic Arts. Western influence in the graphic arts began in the late Ottoman period with the founding of the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul, which continues to be staffed by European and European-educated Turkish artists.

In the republican periods, Turkish art has involved a mixture of Western and indigenous styles. Practically all artists of note have studied at the academy or in Europe. Some have imitated European forms, while others have searched for a Turkish style and portray Turkish themes such as village and urban scenes in a representational manner.

Performance Arts. Foreign plays outnumber Turkish works in the theater, but theater attendance has grown in recent decades and many Turkish playwrights who combine Western techniques with Turkish social issues have had an opportunity to present their works.

Both Ankara and Istanbul have well-respected opera companies. The Presidential Symphony Orchestra gives concerts both in Ankara and on tour. Ankara and Istanbul have music conservatories that include schools of ballet. Several Turkish composers, of whom the best known is Adnan Saygun, have won acclaim in Europe and America for fusing Turkish folk themes with Western forms.

The Istanbul Music Conservatory has taken steps to preserve authentic folk music by recording it in all parts of the country. Annual folk arts festivals in Istanbul present a wide variety of Turkish music and dance.

Most scientific research is carried out at a few universities in Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir. The government funds two-thirds of it. The Ministry of Rural Affairs and the Ministry of Housing and Settlement provide funds for social scientific research. Practically all Turkish leaders in the natural, social, and engineering sciences have received some education abroad, particularly in the United States. Turkey obtains much of its technology for the food-processing, metals, and textiles sectors from abroad.

The number of scientific researchers was estimated at 8 per 10, members of the labor force in Almost three-quarters, or 30, of those researchers were in universities; basic science 10 percentengineering 20 percenthealth science 34 percentagriculture 7 percentsocial science and humanities 29 percent. Turkey's only school of social work and research is at Ankara's Hacettepe University. Abadan-Unat, Nermin, ed.

Women in Turkish Society Ahmad, Feroz. The Turkish Experiment in Democracy, - Anderson, June. Andrews, Peter A. Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey Ansay, Tugrul, and Don Wallace. Introduction to Turkish Law

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