The Ajanta Caves are mentioned in the memoirs of several medieval-era Chinese Buddhist travellers to India and by a Mughal-era official of Akbar era in the early 17th century. With the Ellora Caves , Ajanta is one of the major tourist attractions of Maharashtra. It is about 6 kilometres 3. The Ajanta Caves are generally agreed to have been made in two distinct periods, the first during the 2nd century BCE to 1st century CE, and a second several centuries later. The caves consist of 36 identifiable foundations,  some of them discovered after the original numbering of the caves from 1 through The later-identified caves have been suffixed with the letters of the alphabet, such as 15A, identified between originally numbered caves 15 and The earliest group consists of caves 9, 10, 12, 13 and 15A.
The most elaborate caves were produced in this period, which included some refurbishing and repainting of the early caves. Spink states that it is possible to establish dating for this period with a very high level of precision; a fuller account of his chronology is given below.
The Archaeological Survey of India website still presents the traditional dating: "The second phase of paintings started around 5th-6th centuries A. According to Spink, the construction activity at the incomplete Ajanta Caves was abandoned by wealthy patrons in about CE, a few years after the death of Harishena.
However, states Spink, the caves appear to have been in use for a period of time as evidenced by the wear of the pivot holes caves constructed close to CE.
According to Richard Cohen, a description of the caves by 7th-century Chinese traveler Xuanzang and scattered medieval graffiti suggest that the Ajanta Caves were known and probably in use subsequently, but without a stable or steady Buddhist community presence. The caves were well known by locals already. Since he stood on a five-foot high pile of rubble collected over the years, the inscription is well above the eye-level gaze of an adult today.
Within a few decades, the caves became famous for their exotic setting, impressive architecture, and above all their exceptional and unique paintings. A number of large projects to copy the paintings were made in the century after rediscovery.
In this became the nucleus of the new Archaeological Survey of India. During the colonial era, the Ajanta site was in the territory of the princely state of the Hyderabad and not British India.
These efforts resulted in early mismanagement, states Richard Cohen, and hastened the deterioration of the site. Post-independence, the state government of Maharashtra built arrival, transport, facilities, and better site management. The modern Visitor Center has good parking facilities and public conveniences and ASI operated buses run at regular intervals from Visitor Center to the caves. The Ajanta Caves, along with the Ellora Caves, have become the most popular tourist destination in Maharashtra, and are often crowded at holiday times, increasing the threat to the caves, especially the paintings.
The caves are carved out of flood basalt rock of a cliff, part of the Deccan Traps formed by successive volcanic eruptions at the end of the Cretaceous geological period. The rock is layered horizontally, and somewhat variable in quality.
The inhomogeneity in the rock have also led to cracks and collapses in the centuries that followed, as with the lost portico to cave 1. Excavation began by cutting a narrow tunnel at roof level, which was expanded downwards and outwards; as evidenced by some of the incomplete caves such as the partially-built vihara caves 21 through 24 and the abandoned incomplete cave The sculpture artists likely worked at both excavating the rocks and making the intricate carvings of pillars, roof, and idols; further, the sculpture and painting work inside a cave were integrated parallel tasks.
The caves from the first period seem to have been paid for by a number of different patrons to gain meritwith several inscriptions recording the donation of particular portions of a single cave. The later caves were each commissioned as a complete unit by a single patron from the local rulers or their court elites, again for merit in Buddhist afterlife beliefs as evidenced by inscriptions such as those in Cave The majority of the caves are vihara halls with symmetrical square plans.
To each vihara hall are attached smaller square dormitory cells cut into the walls. These caves are often called monasteries.
The central square space of the interior of the viharas is defined by square columns forming a more-or-less square open area. Outside this are long rectangular aisles on each side, forming a kind of cloister. Along the side and rear walls are a number of small cells entered by a narrow doorway; these are roughly square, and have small niches on their back walls. Originally they had wooden doors. The viharas of the earlier period are much simpler, and lack shrines.
The plan of Cave 1 shows one of the largest viharas, but is fairly typical of the later group. Many others, such as Cave 16, lack the vestibule to the shrine, which leads straight off the main hall.
If Dating Architectural Features you are prepared to show them a good time you will be amply Dating Architectural Features rewarded - if you want to keep pinching your pennies you will be watching Netflix alone for the rest of your days. Cold hard cash is the answer for your problem/ Cyma recta has the convex part nearer the wall and cyma reversa has the concave part nearer the wall cymatium the top moulding of a classical cornice or entablature dado the part of a pedestal between the base and the cornice decastyle a portico consisting of ten columns dentil one of a set of small square or rectangular blocks evenly spaced to. The Ajanta Caves are 30 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India. The caves include paintings and rock-cut sculptures described as among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly expressive paintings that present emotions through gesture, Inscription: (7th Session).
Cave 6 is two viharas, one above the other, connected by internal stairs, with sanctuaries on both levels. Cave 1 plan, a monastery known for its paintings .
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Cave 6: a two-storey monastery with "Miracle of Sravasti" and "Temptation of Mara" painted . Cave a monastery featuring two side aisles . The other type of main hall architecture is the narrower rectangular plan with high arched ceiling type chaitya -griha - literally, "the house of stupa". This hall is longitudinally divided into a nave and two narrower side aisles separated by a symmetrical row of pillars, with a stupa in the apse.
Some of the caves have elaborate carved entrances, some with large windows over the door to admit light. There is often a colonnaded porch or verandahwith another space inside the doors running the width of the cave.
The oldest worship halls at Ajanta were built in the 2nd to 1st century BCE, the newest ones in the late 5th century CE, and the architecture of both resembles the architecture of a Christian churchbut without the crossing or chapel chevette.
The four completed chaitya halls are caves 9 and 10 from the early period, and caves 19 and 26 from the later period of construction. All follow the typical form found elsewhere, with high ceilings and a central "nave" leading to the stupa, which is near the back, but allows walking behind it, as walking around stupas was and remains a common element of Buddhist worship pradakshina.
The later two have high ribbed roofs carved into the rock, which reflect timber forms,  and the earlier two are thought to have used actual timber ribs and are now smooth, the original wood presumed to have perished.
The form of columns in the work of the first period is very plain and un-embellished, with both chaitya halls using simple octagonal columns, which were later painted with images of the Buddha, people and monks in robes.
In the second period columns were far more varied and inventive, often changing profile over their height, and with elaborate carved capitals, often spreading wide. Many columns are carved over all their surface with floral motifs and Mahayana deities, some fluted and others carved with decoration all over, as in cave 1.
Cave a worship hall with Jataka tales-related art 1st century BCE . Cave 9: a worship hall with early paintings and animal friezes 1st century CE . Cave known for its figures of the Buddha, Kubera and other arts 5th century CE . These are Buddhist legends describing the previous births of the Buddha. These fables embed ancient morals and cultural lores that are also found in the fables and legends of Hindu and Jain texts. The Jataka tales are exemplified through the life example and sacrifices that the Buddha made in hundreds of his past incarnations, where he is depicted as having been reborn as an animal or human.
Mural paintings survive from both the earlier and later groups of caves. Four of the later caves have large and relatively well-preserved mural paintings which, states James Harle, "have come to represent Indian mural painting to the non-specialist",  and represent "the great glories not only of Gupta but of all Indian art". The latter group were thought to be a century or later than the others, but the revised chronology proposed by Spink would place them in the 5th century as well, perhaps contemporary with it in a more progressive style, or one reflecting a team from a different region.
They are luxurious, sensuous and celebrate physical beauty, cts that early Western observers felt were shockingly out of place in these caves presumed to be meant for religious worship and ascetic monastic life. The paintings are in "dry fresco ", painted on top of a dry plaster surface rather than into wet plaster. We know from literary sources that painting was widely practised and appreciated in the Gupta period. Unlike much Indian mural painting, compositions are not laid out in horizontal bands like a frieze, but show large scenes spreading in all directions from a single figure or group at the centre.
The scenes depict the Buddha as about to renounce the royal life. In general the later caves seem to have been painted on finished areas as excavating work continued elsewhere in the cave, as shown in caves 2 and 16 in particular. Cave 2, showing the extensive paint loss of many areas.
It was never finished by its artists, and shows Vidhura Jataka. Cave 17 verandah doorway; eight Buddhas above eight couples  . Section of the mural in Cave 17, the 'coming of Sinhala '. The prince Prince Vijaya is seen in both groups of elephants and riders.
Walter M. Spink has over recent decades developed a very precise and circumstantial chronology for the second period of work on the site, which unlike earlier scholars, he places entirely in the 5th century. This is based on evidence such as the inscriptions and artistic style, dating of nearby cave temple sites, comparative chronology of the dynasties, combined with the many uncompleted elements of the caves. This changed during the Hindu emperor Harishena of the Vakataka Dynasty who reigned from to his death inwho sponsored numerous new caves during his reign.
Harisena's rule extended the Central Indian Vakataka Empire to include a stretch of the east coast of India; the Gupta Empire ruled northern India at the same period, and the Pallava dynasty much of the south. According to Spink, Harisena encouraged a group of associates, including his prime minister Varahadeva and Upendragupta, the sub-king in whose territory Ajanta was, to dig out new caves, which were individually commissioned, some containing inscriptions recording the donation.
This activity began in many caves simultaneously about This activity was mostly suspended in because of threats from the neighbouring Asmaka kings. Thereafter work continued on only Caves 1, Harisena's own commission, andcommissioned by Upendragupta. In the situation was such that work was suspended completely, in a period that Spink calls "the Hiatus", which lasted until aboutby which time the Asmakas had replaced Upendragupta as the local rulers.
Work was then resumed, but again disrupted by Harisena's death insoon after which major excavation ceased, except at cave 26, which the Asmakas were sponsoring themselves.
The Asmakas launched a revolt against Harisena's son, which brought about the end of the Vakataka Dynasty. In the years - CE major excavation by important patrons was replaced by a rash of "intrusions" - statues added to existing caves, and small shrines dotted about where there was space between them. These were commissioned by less powerful individuals, some monks, who had not previously been able to make additions to the large excavations of the rulers and courtiers.
They were added to the facades, the return sides of the entrances, and to walls inside the caves. Spink does not use "circa" in his dates, but says that "one should allow a margin of error of one year or perhaps even two in all cases". The Ajanta Caves were built in a period when both the Buddha and the Hindu gods were simultaneously revered in Indian culture. According to Spink and other scholars, the royal Vakataka sponsors of the Ajanta Caves probably worshipped both Hindu and Buddhist gods.
That one could worship both the Buddha and the Hindu gods may well account for Varahadeva's participation here, just as it can explain why the emperor Harisena himself could sponsor the remarkable Cave 1, even though most scholars agree that he was certainly a Hindu, like earlier Vakataka kings. A terracotta plaque of Mahishasuramardinialso known as Durgawas also found in a burnt-brick vihara monastery facing the caves on the right bank of the river Waghora that has been recently excavated.
Cave 1 was built on the eastern end of the horseshoe-shaped scarp and is now the first cave the visitor encounters. This cave, when first made, would have been a less prominent position, right at the end of the row. According to Spink, it is one of the last caves to have been excavated, when the best sites had been taken, and was never fully inaugurated for worship by the dedication of the Buddha image in the central shrine.
This is shown by the absence of sooty deposits from butter lamps on the base of the shrine image, and the lack of damage to the paintings that would have happened if the garland-hooks around the shrine had been in use for any period of time. The cliff has a more steep slope here than at other caves, so to achieve a tall grand facade it was necessary to cut far back into the slope, giving a large courtyard in front of the facade.
There was originally a columned portico in front of the present facade, which can be seen "half-intact in the s" in pictures of the site, but this fell down completely and the remains, despite containing fine carvings, were carelessly thrown down the slope into the river, from where they have been lost.
This cave There are scenes carved from the life of the Buddha as well as a number of decorative motifs.
A two-pillared portico, visible in the 19th-century photographs, has since perished. The cave has a frontcourt with cells fronted by pillared vestibules on either side. These have a high plinth level. The cave has a porch with simple cells on both ends. The absence of pillared vestibules on the ends suggests that the porch was not excavated in the latest phase of Ajanta when pillared vestibules had become customary. Most areas of the porch were once covered with murals, of which many fragments remain, especially on the ceiling.
There are three doorways: a central doorway and two side doorways. Two square windows were carved between the doorways to brighten the interiors. Twelve pillars make a square colonnade inside supporting the ceiling, and creating spacious aisles along the walls.
There is a shrine carved on the rear wall to house an impressive seated image of the Buddha, his hands being in the dharmachakrapravartana mudra. There are four cells on each of the left, rear, and the right walls, though due to rock fault there are none at the ends of the rear aisle. The paintings of Cave 1 cover the walls and the ceilings. They are in a fair state of preservation, although the full scheme was never completed. The scenes depicted are mostly didactic, devotional, and ornamental, with scenes from the Jataka stories of the Buddha's former lives as a bodhisattvathe life of the Gautama Buddhaand those of his veneration.
The two most famous individual painted images at Ajanta are the two over-life-size figures of the protective bodhisattvas Padmapani and Vajrapani on either side of the entrance to the Buddha shrine on the wall of the rear aisle see illustrations above. The cave-paintings also show the Temptation of Mara, the miracle of Sravasti where the Buddha simultaneously manifests in many forms, the story of Nanda, and the story of Siddhartha and Yasodhara. One of four frescos for the Mahajanaka Jataka tale: the king announces his abdication to become an ascetic.
Sibi Jataka: the king undergoes the traditional rituals for renunciants. He receives a ceremonial bath. The Bodhisattva of compassion Padmapani with lotus. The Vajrapani. Cave 2, adjacent to Cave 1, is known for the paintings that have been preserved on its walls, ceilings, and pillars. It looks similar to Cave 1 and is in a better state of preservation.
This cave is best known for its feminine focus, intricate rock carvings and paint artwork yet it is incomplete and lacks consistency. Cave 2 The cave is supported by robust pillars, ornamented with designs.
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The front porch consists of cells supported by pillared vestibules on both ends. The hall has four colonnades which are supporting the ceiling and surrounding a square in the center of the hall. Each arm or colonnade of the square is parallel to the respective walls of the hall, making an aisle in between. The colonnades have rock-beams above and below them.
The capitals are carved and painted with various decorative themes that include ornamental, human, animal, vegetative, and semi-divine motifs. She is a Buddhist deity who originally was the demoness of smallpox and a child eater, who the Buddha converted into a guardian goddess of fertility, easy child birth and one who protects babies.
The paintings on the ceilings and walls of Cave 2 have been widely published. Other frescos show the miracle of Sravasti, Ashtabhaya Avalokitesvara and the dream of Maya. On either side of the door is a square-shaped window to brighten the interior.
Cave 2 fresco above the right door shows Buddha in Tushita heaven. A scene from Vidurapandita Jataka: the birth of the Buddha. The artworks of Cave 2 are known for their feminine focus, such as these two females.
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The Miracle of Sravasti. Cave 3 is merely a start of an excavation; according to Spink it was begun right at the end of the final period of work and soon abandoned. This is an incomplete monastery and only the preliminary excavations of pillared veranda exist.
The cave was one of the very last projects to start at the site. Its date could be ascribed to circa CE [ full citation needed ]just before the sudden death of Emperor Harisena. The work stopped after the scooping out of a rough entrance of the hall. Cave 4, a Viharawas sponsored by Mathura, likely not a noble or courtly official, rather a wealthy devotee. It is placed at a significantly higher level, possibly because the artists realized that the rock quality at the lower and same level of other caves was poor and they had a better chance of a major vihara at an upper location.
Another likely possibility is that the planners wanted to carve into the rock another large cistern to the left courtside for more residents, mirroring the right, a plan implied by the height of the forward cells on the left side.
Later, the artists attempted to overcome this geological flaw by raising the height of the ceiling through deeper excavation of the embedded basalt lava. It consists, of a verandah, a hypostylar hall, sanctum with an antechamber and a series of unfinished cells. The cave's ceiling collapse likely affected its overall plan, caused it being left incomplete. Only the Buddha's statue and the major sculptures were completed, and except for what the sponsor considered most important elements all other elements inside the cave were never painted.
Cave 5, an unfinished excavation was planned as a monastery Cave 5 is devoid of sculpture and architectural elements except the door frame. The ornate carvings on the frame has female figures with mythical makara creatures found in ancient and medieval era Indian arts.
The construction was resumed in CE after Asmakas restarted work at the Ajanta caves, but abandoned again as the artists and sponsor redesigned and focussed on an expanded Cave 6 that abuts Cave 5. Cave 6 is two-storey monastery It consists of a sanctum, a hall on both levels. The lower level is pillared and has attached cells. The upper hall also has subsidiary cells. The sanctums on both level feature a Buddha in the teaching posture. Elsewhere, the Buddha is shown in different mudras.
The lower level walls depict the Miracle of Sravasti and the Temptation of Mara legends. The unfinished upper floor of cave 6 has many private votive sculptures, and a shrine Buddha. The lower level of the Cave 6 likely was the earliest excavation in the second stage of construction. Both lower and upper Cave 6 show crude experimentation and construction errors. The walls and sanctum's door frame of the both levels are intricately carved.
These show themes such as makaras and other mythical creatures, apsaras, elephants in different stages of activity, females in waving or welcoming gesture. The upper level of Cave 6 is significant in that it shows a devotee in a kneeling posture at the Buddha's feet, an indication of devotional worship practices by the 5th century.
The most intact painting in Cave 6: Buddha seated in dharma-chakra-mudra. Painting showing the Mahayana devotional worship to the Buddha.
Buddha in the upper level, deer below and apsaras above artificial lighting. The Cave 7 is also a monastery It consists of a sanctum, a hall with octagonal pillars, and eight small rooms for monks.
The sanctum Buddha is shown in preaching posture. There are many art panels narrating Buddhist themes, including those of the Buddha with Nagamuchalinda and Miracle of Sravasti. Cave 7 has a grand facade with two porticos. The veranda has eight pillars of two types.
One has an octagonal base with amalaka and lotus capital. The other lacks a distinctly shaped base, features an octagonal shaft instead with a plain capital. On the left side in this antechamber are seated or standing sculptures such as those of 25 carved seated Buddhas in various postures and facial expressions, while on the right side are 58 seated Buddha reliefs in different postures, all placed on lotus.
On this frame are carved two females standing on makaras mythical sea creatures. Inside the sanctum is the Buddha sitting on a lion throne in cross legged posture, surrounded by other Bodhisattva figures, two attendants with chauris and flying apsaras above. Perhaps because of faults in the rock, Cave 7 was never taken very deep into the cliff. It consists only of the two porticos and a shrine room with antechamber, with no central hall.
Some cells were fitted in. The first version was complete by about CE, the myriad Buddhas added and painted a few years later between and CE. Cave 7 plan Robert Gill sketch. Cave 7: Buddhas on the antechamber left wall James Burgess sketch. Buddhas on the antechamber's right wall.
Cave 8 is another unfinished monastery For many decades in the 20th-century, this cave was used as a storage and generator room. Much of its front is damaged, likely from a landslide. Spink, in contrast, states that Cave 8 is perhaps the earliest cave from the second period, its shrine an "afterthought".
It may well be the oldest Mahayana monastery excavated in India, according to Spink. The cave was painted, but only traces remain. Caves 9 and 10 are the two chaitya or worship halls from the 2nd to 1st century BCE - the first period of construction, though both were reworked upon the end of the second period of construction in the 5th century CE. Cave 9 The small "shrinelets" called caves 9A to 9D and 10A also date from the second period.
These were commissioned by individuals. The cave has a distinct apsidal shape, nave, aisle and an apse with an icon, architecture, and plan that reminds one of the cathedrals built in Europe many centuries later. The aisle has a row of 23 pillars. The ceiling is vaulted. The stupa is at the center of the apse, with a circumambulation path around it. The stupa sits on a high cylindrical base.
On the left wall of the cave are votaries approaching the stupa, which suggests a devotional tradition. According to Spink, the paintings in this cave, including the intrusive standing Buddhas on the pillars, were added in the 5th century. Some of the panels and reliefs inside as well as outside Cave 10 do not make narrative sense, but are related to Buddhist legends. This lack of narrative flow may be because these were added by different monks and official donors in the 5th century wherever empty space was available.
The apsidal hall with plain hemispherical stupa at apse's center. Cave 9: fresco with Buddhas in orange robes and protected by chatra umbrellas.
Cave 10, a vast prayer hall or Chaityais dated to about the 1st century BCE, together with the nearby vihara cave No The stupa has a pradakshina patha circumambulatory path.
This cave is significant because its scale confirms the influence of Buddhism in South Asia by the 1st century BCE and its continued though declining influence in India through the 5th century CE. Several others caves were also built in Western India around the same period under royal sponsorship.
Cave 10 features a Sanskrit inscription in Brahmi script that is archaeologically important. The paintings in cave 10 include some surviving from the early period, many from an incomplete programme of modernisation in the second period, and a very large number of smaller late intrusive images for votive purposes, around the - CE, nearly all Buddhas and many with donor inscriptions from individuals.
These mostly avoided over-painting the "official" programme and after the best positions were used up are tucked away in less prominent positions not yet painted; the total of these including those now lost was probably overand the hands of many different artists are visible. The paintings are numerous and from two periods, many narrating the Jataka tales in a clockwise sequence.
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Cave 10, condition in. The Buddha in long, heavy robe, a design derived from the art of Gandhara. Paintings of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas on the arches. The Cave 11 is a monastery The ceiling of the veranda shows evidence of floral designs and eroded reliefs. Only the center panel is discernible wherein the Buddha is seen with votaries lining up to pray before him.
Similar stone benches are found in Nasik Caves. The cave has a few paintings showing Bodhisattvas and the Buddha. The sanctum of this cave may be among the last structures built at Ajanta because it features a circumambulation path around the seated Buddha.
Spink however only dates it to the 1st century BCE. The cave is damaged with its front wall completely collapsed. Its three sides inside have twelve cells, each with two stone beds.
Cave 13 is another small monastery from the early period, consisting of a hall with seven cells, each also with two stone beds, all carved out of the rock.
Each cell has rock-cut beds for the monks.
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In contrast to ASI's estimate, Gupte and Mahajan date both these caves about two to three centuries later, between 1st and 2nd-century CE. Cave 14 is another unfinished monastery The entrance door frame shows sala bhanjikas.
Cave 15 is a more complete monastery The cave consists of an eight-celled hall ending in a sanctum, an antechamber and a verandah with pillars. The reliefs show the Buddha, while the sanctum Buddha is shown seated in the Simhasana posture. Cave 15A is the smallest cave with a hall and one cell on each side. Its entrance is located just to the right of the elephant-decorated entrance to Cave Cave 16 occupies a prime position near the middle of site, and was sponsored by Varahadeva, minister of Vakataka king Harishena r.
He devoted it to the community of monks, with an inscription that expresses his wish, may "the entire world Cave 16 Spink and other scholars call it the "crucial cave" that helps trace the chronology of the second and closing stages of the entire cave complex's construction.
The paintings in Cave 16 are numerous. Narratives include various Jataka tales such as Hasti, Mahaummagga and the Sutasoma fables. Other frescos depict the conversion of Nanda, miracle of Sravasti, Sujata 's offering, Asita's visit, the dream of Maya, the Trapusha and Bhallika story, and the ploughing festival. The elephant proceeds to sacrifice himself by jumping off that cliff thereby becoming food so that the people can survive.
The Mahaummagga Jataka frescos are found on the left wall of the corridor, which narrates the story of a child Bodhisattva. The story depicted is one of the two major versions of the Nanda legend in the Buddhist tradition, one where Nanda wants to lead a sensuous life with the girl he had just wed and the Buddha takes him to heaven and later hell to show the spiritual dangers of a sensual life.
The right wall of the corridor show the scenes from the life of the Buddha. Another shows the Buddha at the palace surrounded by men in dhoti and women in sari as his behavior presents the four signs that he is likely to renounce.
The conversion of sensuality-driven Nanda to Buddhism, left corridor. Palace scene fresco, right corridor of Cave 16. The Buddha in asceticism stage, getting sweet milk-rice from Sujata. Manushi Buddhas painting in Cave 16. Cave 17 The cave features a large and most sophisticated vihara design, along with some of the best-preserved and well-known paintings of all the caves.
While Cave 16 is known for depicting the life stories of the Buddha, the Cave 17 paintings has attracted much attention for extolling human virtues by narrating the Jataka tales. The ancient artists, states Kramrisch, tried to show wind passing over a crop by showing it bending in waves, and a similar profusion of rhythmic sequences that unroll story after story, visually presenting the metaphysical.
The Cave 17 monastery includes a colonnaded porch, a number of pillars each with a distinct style, a peristyle design for the interior hall, a shrine antechamber located deep in the cave, larger windows and doors for more light, along with extensive integrated carvings of Indian gods and goddesses.
Cave 17 has one long inscription by king Upendraguptain which he explains that he has "expended abundant wealth" on building this vihara, bringing much satisfaction to the devotees. He may have spent too much wealth on religious pursuits however, as he was ultimately defeated by the attacks of the Asmaka.
Cave 17 has thirty major murals. Also depicted are Avalokitesvara, the story of Udayin and Gupta, the story of Nalagiri, the Wheel of lifea panel celebrating various ancient Indian musicians and a panel that tells of Prince Simhala's expedition to Sri Lanka. They show themes as diverse as a shipwreck, a princess applying makeup, lovers in scenes of dalliance, and a wine drinking scene of a couple with the woman and man amorously seated.
Some frescos attempt to show the key characters from various parts of a Jataka tale by co-depicting animals and attendants in the same scene. Vessantara Jataka: the story of the generous king Vessantara. Shaddanta Jataka: six-tusked elephant giving away his tusks. Painting of the black princess. Cave 18 is a small rectangular space 3. Its role is unclear. Cave 19 is a worship hall chaitya griha, The hall shows painted Buddha, depicted in different postures. The presence of this room before the hall suggests that the original plan included a mandala style courtyard for devotees to gather and wait, an entrance and facade to this courtyard, all of whose ruins are now lost to history.
It includes Naga figures with a serpent canopy protecting the Buddha, similar to those found for spiritual icons in the ancient Jain and Hindu traditions. It includes Yaksha dvarapala guardian images on the side of its vatayana archesflying couples, sitting Buddha, standing Buddhas and evidence that its ceiling was once painted.
The Cave 19 drew upon on the plan and experimentation in Cave 9. Cave 19 excavation and stupa was likely in place by CE, and its finishing and artistic work continued into the early s, but it too was an incomplete cave when it was dedicated in CE.
The entrance facade of the Cave 19 worship hall is ornate. Two round pillars with fluted floral patterns and carved garlands support a porch. Its capital is an inverted lotus connecting to an amalaka. To its left is standing Buddha in varada hasta mudra with a devotee prostrating at his feet. On right is a relief of woman with one hand holding a pitcher and other touching her chin.
Towards the right of the entrance is the "Mother and Child" sculpture. The worship hall is apsidal, with 15 pillars dividing it into two side aisles and one nave. The round pillars have floral reliefs and a fluted shaft topped with Buddha in its capitals. Next, to the Buddha in the capitals are elephants, horses and flying apsara friezes found elsewhere in India, reflecting the style of the Gupta Empire artwork.
The walls and the ceiling of the side aisles inside the worship hall are covered with paintings. These show the Buddha, flowers, and in the left aisle the "Mother and Child" legend again.
Cave 19 plan suggests that it once had a courtyard and additional artwork. Nagaraja in ardhaparyanka asanawith his wife holding lotus and wearing mangalasutra. The nave has 15 pillars with Buddha reliefs. Buddha paintings in the side aisle of Cave 19. Cave 20 is a monastery hall Its construction, states Spink, was started in the s by king Upendragupta, with his expressed desire "to make the great tree of religious merit grow".
Cave 20 has exquisite detailing, states Spink, but it was relatively lower on priority than Caves 17 and The vihara consists of a sanctum, four cells for monks and a pillared verandah with two stone cut windows for light. Prior to entering the main hall, on the left of veranda are two Buddhas carved above the window and side cell.
The station below reflects very vernacular construction with the influence of the Gothic Revival style. Again the six-over-six and six-over-nine windows indicate a pres construction date, as do the raking eaves eaves that extend straight down past the wall and do not angle in to create cornice returns. The windows and doors also have a very slight peak, reflecting the pointed-arches of the Gothic Revival style.
The defining feature on this simple, vernacular station is the steeply-pitched roof. Brackets, beneath the eaves, were also commonly used on Gothic Revival style. During the late s and into the s, the Italianate and French Second Empire styles were quite popular. The Italianate style in the image below is characterized by the large cupola, the round arch windows with hood moldings, and round windows in the gable ends, and the details beneath the eaves.
Similar to the Italianate, but characterized by its mansard roof, is the French Second Empire style seen below. The mansard roof is flat on top and extends down to encompass the upper story, often with flared eaves. The image below provides an excellent look at a Second Empire station and its mansard roof. The small vernacular station in the image below does not appear to have any stylistic references.
However, the two-over-two sash windows indicate a construction period of the s or s. Two-over-two windows were popular during this era and were largely replaced by one-over-one windows in the s. The exuberant Queen Anne style of the s and s may have also been used in train station design in Vermont.
The Queen Anne style is characterized by its excessive ornament, towers, bay windows, wrapping porches with turned posts, and elaborate stickwork detailed woodwork. Also popular during the s and s were the Shingle style and the Richardsonian Romanesque style. The Single style, seen below, is characterized by its wood shingles, large wall planes, deep porches, and broad, encompassing roof. The Richardsonian Romanesque style became quite popular in railroad depot design.
These masonry structures are generally known for their large, heavy round arch windows and doors, as seen in the image below. During the early decades of the 20 th century, Beaux-Arts Classicism gained popularity for large railroad stations.
This monumental style, seen below, emphasizes Classical details and has a rich, textured surface and a significant amount of ornament.
Smaller stations were likely constructed in the Colonial Revival style, which was quite popular during the early 20 th century. The Colonial Revival style also employed Classical details but in a much more modest way, reminiscent of early American Colonial architecture.
Jones, The Central Vermont Railway: A Yankee Tradition, However, many smaller, more rural stations were constructed in a very simple vernacular style.