Figure 1. Grand Canyon National Park preserves an iconic geologic landscape and resources ranging from 1, to million years old, including diverse paleontological resources; unconsolidated surface deposits; a complex tectonic and erosion history; and Pliocene to Holocene volcanic deposits. The Colorado River established its course through the canyon about six million years ago, and likely evolved from pre-existing drainages to its current course. Geologic processes, including erosion of tributaries and slopes, and active tectonics continue to shape the canyon today. The geologic record in Grand Canyon is an important scientific chronicle and is largely responsible for its inspirational scenery. Well known for its geologic significance, the Grand Canyon is one of the most studied geologic landscapes in the world. It offers an excellent record of three of the four eras of geological time, a rich and diverse fossil record, a vast array of geologic features and rock types, and numerous caves containing extensive and significant geological, paleontological, archeological and biological resources.
Listen to scientists talk about the age of the Grand Canyon and the controversy over the dating.
Press the play button on the left of the page to listen. Transcripts available on the left menu as well.
How Old is the Grand Canyon? Grand Canyon May be Older and Younger than you think. You will be determining the relative order in which geological events occurred, as shown in this generic stratigraphic cross section below. Stratigraphy is the study of the rock strata, or layers, and is usually applied to sedimentary and sometimes volcanic rocks.
Module 9 - Geologic Time. Search for:. Licenses and Attributions.
Define cross-cutting. cross-cutting synonyms, cross-cutting pronunciation, cross-cutting translation, English dictionary definition of cross-cutting. adj linking traditionally separate or independent parties or interests: a multi-agency, cross-cutting approach on drugs cross-cutting; cross-dating; Cross-days; cross-disciplinary; cross. Cross-cutting is an editing technique most often used in films to establish action occurring at the same time, and usually in the same place. In a cross-cut, the camera will cut away from one action to another action, which can suggest the simultaneity of these two actions but this is not always the case. Cross-cutting can also be used for characters in a film with the same goals but different. CCC Speed Dating and Station Rotation. 0. The first step in preparing to use the Crosscutting Concepts (CCCs) is to become familiar with what they are and how they are defined. This activity is a basic introduction to the names of the seven CCCs and an opportunity to start learning what they mean and how content might be sorted among them. This.
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Learning Goals. Download the full activity. Approximate time. Print and cut out the speed dating cards. If you can use cardstock for these, they will be a bit easier to work with. Note that one complete set contains 14 cards 7 titles, 7 definitions.
If your group has more than 14 people, you will need to print extra cards. Print the content examples for each of the seven CCC stations, as well as station signs numbered 1 - 7.
Cross cutting dating
If desired and if you have time you can add or swap in different examples of content to better suit the interests of your specific group of teachers. Print copies of the CCC stations handout for participants.
Relative Dating - Example 1
If desired, print the CCC stations key for your own reference. Background for Facilitators. Part 1: CCCs speed dating 10 minutes Tell participants that the goal of the next activity is to give them a first introduction to how the Crosscutting Concepts CCCs are defined. Have each participant blindly draw a card. That card will have either the title of a CCC e.
Their task is to mingle around the room looking for their CCC match. If they have the title of a CCC, they are searching for the person who has the definition; if they have the definition, they are searching for the person who has the matching title.
NOTE: if you have more than 14 participants in your session, clarify that there are multiple copies of each CCC title and definition, so they will end up in larger groups for example, a group with 2 Patterns titles and 1 Patterns definition. When they find their match, the pair or group should sit down together at any table to show they have completed the activity.
During the activity, walk around and help participants who are struggling to find their groups.
You should also use some of this time to put out stations for the next activity. Show the CCC Speed dating definitions slide.
Relative age dating has to do with determining the temporal ordering of events in Earth's past. Geologists employ a handful of simple principles in relative age dating; two of the most important of these are are the principles of superposition and cross-cutting relationships. A third key principle-faunal succession-is reviewed in Section 3. Relative Dating and Cross Cutting Relationships Figure 1. Grand Canyon National Park preserves an iconic geologic landscape and resources ranging from 1, to million years old, including diverse paleontological resources; unconsolidated surface deposits; a complex tectonic and erosion history; and Pliocene to Holocene volcanic deposits. James Hutton's observations related to uniformitarianism also serve as the basis for another important geologic principle called cross-cutting relationships, which is a technique used in relative age dating. In short an intrusive rock body is younger than the rocks it intrudes.
Ask participants if they correctly matched the CCC title with the definition. Pause and ask for any thoughts, comments, or questions about these definitions.
Discussion questions may include: Were any definitions particularly difficult or easy to match. Are any of these definitions surprising or confusing to you?
Give instructions: Each participant will have a worksheet and will be visiting stations At each station, they will see examples of mostly science content that is related to one CCC. Some stations also include examples of non-science content. Their task is to identify the CCC that unifies all of the examples at the station.
Participants should record their matches on the worksheet. The notes column can be used to jot down any thoughts about how they made the match, or ideas of other things that could fit into this CCC.
They can work in pairs or individually. They can visit the stations in any order. When they have finished their station rotation, bring their attention back together for a group discussion.