To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Assessment of violence in adolescent couples. Antonio Fuertes.
Predictors of dating violence: A multivariate analysis. Violence and Victims, 7, Capaldi, D. Observed and reported psychological and physical aggression in young, at-risk couples. Social Development, 6, Carretero-Dios, H. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 5, Cascardi, M.
Factor structure and convergent validity of the conflict tactics scale in high school students. Psychological Assessment, 11, Dion, K. Individualistic and collectivistic perspectives on gender and the cultural context of love and intimacy. Journal of Social Issues, 49, Dutton, D. Validation of the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale in diverse male populations.
Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory Prior to the development of the CADRI, items used to measure adolescent dating violence were adapted from adult measures (i.e. CTS-2, Psychological Maltreatment of WomenAuthor: Stephanie J Stroever. Convergent validity was supported by positive correlations with the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory, and reliability analyses yielded favorable results (with all Cronbach's ? values above). We conclude that the VADRI is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of DV in various cultural contexts. PMID: Four studies examined the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI), a measure of abusive behavior among adolescent dating partners. Exploratory factor analysis was used to refine items based on high school participants with dating experience (N = ; 49female). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to derive and cross-validate the factor structure with .
Journal of Family Violence, 16, Furman, W. The influence of earlier relationships on marriage: An attachment perspective. Halford y H. Markman Eds.
Chichester: Wiley. Adolescent romantic relationships: A developmental perspective. Shulman y W. Collins Eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Psicothema, 13, Gray, H.
What is the nature of adolescent dating and romantic relationships
Adolescent dating violence: Differences between one-sided and mutually violent profiles. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, Jezl, D. Physical, sexual, and psychological abuse in high school dating relationships: Prevalence rates and self esteem issues. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 13, Violencia en las relaciones de pareja en adolescentes Kanin, E.
Male aggression in dating-courting relations. American Journal of Sociology, 63, Koss, M. Sexual Experiences Survey: A research instrument investigating sexual aggression and victimization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, Makepeace, J. Courtship violence among college students. Family Relations, 30, Medina-Ariza, J.
Intimate partner violence in Spain. Findings from a National Survey. Violence Against Women, 9, Molidor, C.
Conflict in adolescent dating relationships inventory
Gender and contextual factors in adolescent dating violence. Violence Against Women, 4, Moffitt, T. The procedure was identical to Study 1.
Relationship Essay: Effects of Dating at a Young Age In this relationship essay sample, the author has analyzed the effects of dating on young children and teenagers. When teenagers start to date, it is a positive experience for them, as this new kind of relationship gives a feeling of safety and experience of a new level of relationships. Intimate-partner violence (IPV) in adolescent and young-adult dating relationships is a prevalent and serious public health problem. The measurement of IPV across adolescence has most commonly relied on the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationship Inventory (CADRI; Wolfe et al., ), which postulates 5 distinct yet related types of IPV (i.e., threatening, verbal/emotional, relational. Semantic Scholar extracted view of "VALIDATION OF THE CONFLICT IN ADOLESCENT DATING RELATIONSHIPS INVENTORY (CADRI) IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF CONSTRUCT VALIDITY AND MEASUREMENT INVARIANCE" by Stephanie Stroever.
To guard against capitalizing on sample-specific trends that would improve fit in the current study, Presentation of results begins with a description of the model we decided to proceed by randomly dividing the sample in half and analyses done to determine the best measurement structure for a examining modification indices independently for each sample. The adequacy of fit for all Only modifications suggested in both models would be used in the models was determined using statistical equation modeling with final model.
Following conventional recommendations, several in- dent samples and were added to the final model. Chi-square represents a comparison between ridiculing a partner Items 17 and 21 ; and monitoring a partner's the covariance matrix of the model to the covariance matrix of the actions and making jealous accusations Items 23 and Two sample, with a lower chi-square indicating a higher convergence additional error correlations, between threatened and actual phys- This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
The scaled chi-square ical abuse Items 36 and 37 and between attempts to turn a This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. To ensure that the latter correlations reflecte the comparative fit index CFI; Bentler, and the root similarity in the error structure of the items, rather than theoretical mean square of error approximation RMSEA; Steiger, The overlap, the correlated error term solutions were contrasted with GFI evaluates absolute fit, or the degree to which the covari- solutions allowing double loading of these manifest variables.
In ances implied by the fixed and free parameters specified in the all cases, the former models offered a significantly better fit to the model match the observed covariances from which free param- data than the latter.
Fit indices for the resulting modified model eters in the model were estimated. Table 3 shows the loadings of multiple regression analyses.
The CFI, in contrast, is one of manifest variables onto first order factors, and first order factors many incremental fit indices. These indices estimate the pro- onto the second order abusiveness construct for all items. The prior analysis indicated that our indicating a perfect fit of a the model to the data.
By conven- hypothesized model provided a good fit to the measurement of tion, values of. As recommended by MacCallum examined age and sex differences with this high school sample. This index is Subsamples were derived by dividing the large school sample bounded below by 0, with values of less than.
The Structure of the CADRI with a representative high school sam- following steps were taken to determine if these loadings varied ple.
CFA was used with the representative sample of high school significantly: a Modification indices were examined for any students to compare the hypothesized five-factor model, as shown deviations from the hypothesized model, for example, differ- in Figure 1, to two alternative models: a a two-factor model ence in the items representing first order factors; b an overall typical of others found in exploratory factor analyses; b a test of significance was done to determine if there were any frequency-based model that specified five first order factors on the differences in loadings of manifest variables onto first order basis of frequency e.
As shown in Table 2, even without modifications, the loadings; and d differences in loadings of first order factors hypothesized model provided a better fit for the data based on the onto the second order abuse factor were examined. An alpha value of the chi-square statistic i.
Examination of the loadings associated with the measurement Modification indices were examined for possible improvement model Table 4, top suggested that the general structure of this to the fit of the hypothesized model. Further supporting the ade- model fits moderately well for all grades and both sexes. As emphasized by MacCallumabuse, threatening behavior, and emotional verbal abuse ; sex- this strategy of model improvement is data driven, rather than ual abuse and relational aggression loadings varied significantly theoretically driven.
Thus, caution is necessary to ensure that the by age and sex. I threatened to hit her or throw something at her I threatened to hurt her I deliberately tried to frighten her I destroyed or threatened to destroy something she valued I said things to her friends about her to turn them against her I tried to turn her friends against her I spread rumours about her I pushed, shoved, or shook her This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
Confirmatory factor model of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory with first and higher order factor loadings items from the male version. Table 2. To increase the measure's sensitivity to devel- Model 1: Two factor This model was applied to subsets of male and Model 4: Hypothesized model Not Model 5: Hypothesized model surprisingly, dropping the relational aggression and sexual abuse with modifications Threatening behavior 0.
I destroyed or threatened to destroy something she valued 5. Items are from the male version. Across samples, the highest loading was noted for the physical abuse factor, followed by threatening behavior and verbal Overview or emotional abuse.
To examine the internal reliability of the reliability and partner agreement of the CADRI, involving youth CADRI and its five subscales, summed scores were created by from an independent sample of high school students. Two total scores were com- puted, one representing the full model with five subscales see Figure 1and the other the restricted model with three subscales.
Method Table 5 shows Cronbach's alpha values for the first- and second- Participants. Students in Grades 9 through 11 at a public secondary order factor scales, by sex and grade. Consistent with the factor loadings reported 2 On the basis of these findings, we propose two possible methods for earlier, sexual abuse and relational aggression subscales were not scoring the CADRI: One method uses all items to establish an abuse score, internally consistent across sex or grade.
The latter method may be more appropriate for research purposes subsamples. Relational aggression. Fit indices x2 Sample size was reduced from 1, to because Grade 12 students were excluded from dependent sample analyses.
The Full Article dating relationships inventory cadri wolfe et al. given the conflict tactics scale cts2; 91 10 pubmedgoogle. Sass used to occur in adolescent dating relationships inventory cadri conflict in et al. Cadri conflict of two existing scales, , scott k, chiodo d, a . Perpetration of physical and sexual TDV was measured by using the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI). 32 Adolescents responded with yes or no to questions about their own behavior in their lifetime (wave 1) and in the past year (wave 2-wave 6). Four items assessed physical forms of TDV (eg, "I kicked, hit, or. Mar 15, The Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI) Wolfe‚ D. A.‚ Scott‚ K.‚ Reitzel-Jaffe‚ D.‚ Wekerle‚ C.‚ Grasley‚ C.‚ & Straatman‚ A. DURING A CONFLICT OR ARGUMENT IN THE PAST YEAR.
Differences in degrees of freedom between models are due to the addition of an error variance constraint for error terms initially estimated with negative variances. Errors were constrained only after other possible explanations for negative variance were explored. No sex or grade differences were found Overview between participants and nonparticipants.
Couples enrolled in the study of This study investigated construct validity of the CADRI, based partner agreement had been dating for a minimum of one month. Youth involved in tion task. For youth participating in the partner agree- Method ment study, response booklets were matched and instructions were altered Participants. Dating couples from the community n - 26 were slightly to reference the CADRI items to the respondent's current dating recruited for validity purposes.
These couples were between 14 and 19 partner. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. Results This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. Dating couples were recruited from a local youth agency that offers drop-in services for teens.
This sample was recruited specifically Table 6 shows test-retest reliability and partner agreement for for the laboratory task described laterbecause schools did not wish to first- and second-order factors.
Test-retest reliability was accept- have students participating in research off site. Informed consent was able for all subscales with the exception of sexual abuse; the total received from a parent or guardian, as well as adolescent assent to scale also showed acceptable reliability over time for both the participate. Partner Dating partners were provided transportation to the university lab, where agreement, based on correlations between self-reported perpetra- both completed the CADRI and a 10 min videotaped interaction.
Both partners were asked independently to describe the kinds of things they tion and partner-reported victimization, is shown in Table 6 ac- argue or disagree about and then to rate the intensity of each minor, cording to the sex of the perpetrator. With certain exceptions, these moderate, or strong.
Following a warm-up period to adapt to the task and figures show fairly good agreement between male and female camera, one partner was randomly asked to choose and discuss a recent dating partners for both male and female perpetrated behaviors. After about 5 min, the discussion changed to and lower agreement on female threatening behavior and female a topic chosen by the other partner. Couples were debriefed on the study sexual abust see Discussion.
The second order factor scores and received resource information concerning the prevention of dating violence. An event-coding system was perpetrated forms of abuse. A set of paired samples Mests were used to establish the validity of youths' self-reported abusive behavior. The conducted to determine if partners also agreed on the absolute items on this coding system were based directly upon CADRI items.
For level of abuse perpetrated. Thus, the resulting coding system was used to verify adolescent self-report of their abusive behaviors using sampled interactional data; however, the proce- dure was not used to establish discriminative validity of the measure Table 6 because the "true" abusive status of the respondents was not known.
Two Test-Retest Reliability and Partner Agreement for First- and doctoral-level psychology graduate students, experienced in clinical and Second-Order Factor Scales theoretical issues pertaining to interpersonal violence, coded the video- tapes. Coders marked each reliability Male Female time an event occurred and they specified the perpetrator of each event.
Inter-rater agreement, calculated on the basis of both the pres- First order factors ence and absence of abusive events in one-fifth of the tapes, was satisfac- Sexual abuse.
The Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI)
Relational abuse was not available for these samples. Abuse scores based on observer ratings were correlated with agreement. Correlations between self-report and Lavoie, Similarly, relational aggression was more common observer ratings for female respondents were nonsignificant. These results suggest that exploration of the development In the present study, we examined the factor structure of the of abuse in adolescence should attend to the type as well as CADRI, a self-report measure of abuse in adolescent dating rela- frequency of behaviors that are characteristics of the abusive tionships.
Using exploratory factor analytic methods that were relationships of adolescence at different ages. Specifically, a restricted model of abuse was threatening behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses on a large, tested that included only physical abuse, threatening behavior, and This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. Alpha reliabilities of the subscales implied by this model representing five different types of abuse-physical, sexual, were also strong.
Moreover, these factors all loaded significantly nal consistency measures were strong, and test-retest reliability onto the proposed second-order abusiveness factor. When tested measures were adequate for subscales and both the full and re- against three alternative models, this five first-order and one stricted models.
Acceptable partner agreement was found between second-order factor model of abuse provided the best fit for the self-reported perpetration and partner-reported victimization for data. Thus, in both EFA and CFA a single underlying factor was both male and female perpetration, especially for the total abuse uncovered, and in CFA the subtle differences between packages of and restricted abuse scales.
There was less agreement, however, as abusive behaviors were better understood. This These five first-order factors loaded on a single second-order latter finding may imply that male students are less likely to view "abusiveness" factor, which supports the proposed theoretical such acts as "abusive;" that is, a female dating partner may report model of abuse in adolescent relationships as a single underlying that she "deliberately tried to frighten him," but her male partner dimension composed of interrelated expressions of abuse.
Acts of may not perceive her actions as threatening. Similarly, a male physical abuse, verbal abuse, and threatening behaviors were most dating partner may be less likely to consider unwanted sexual representative of this underlying factor, whereas sexual and rela- behaviors "abusive," because he does not feel threatened or tional abuse varied by grade and sex.
A strength of this second- fearful. Our focus groups with teens revealed these issues to order abusiveness factor is the importance of including within the be particularly tricky to explain out of context, which will same dimension the more subtle, prodromal forms of abuse, such require further measurement development to assess more as forms of threatening behavior, verbal or emotional abuse, and comprehensively.
Although examining the relation of the abuse and restricted abuse scores of the consequences of more subtle forms of abuse may differ from youth to observer ratings based on behavioral sampling of couple those caused by more serious physical and sexual assaults, these interactions. However, the relationship between two of the five proposed Several limitations of the measure and its psychometric proper- factors, sexual abuse and relational aggression, and the second ties warrant discussion.
First, although the fit indices for the final order abuse factor varied considerably with age and sex of the model and its restricted version were generally above the value of respondent. Sexual abuse loaded more highly on the abuse factor. This finding likely is due to immaturity in achieve these results. In most cases these restrictions were unre- negotiating sexual intimacy and perhaps greater confusion in terms markable, involving correlating error terms for items on the same of understanding and obtaining consent for sexual activity Eccles second order factors that had similar content and function e.
Although female error terms for items representing insulting and ridiculing partners students report greater sexual victimization and male students were correlated. For other items, such as threatened and actual endorse greater initiation of perpetration in most studies of this age physical abuse, error term correlations spanned second order fac- group, girls are more inclined to initiate minor forms of sexual tors.
The need to add these latter constraints is more concerning in coercion e. Second, well-known limitations associated with sion. Journal of Adolescent Health, 21, Power and violence: The relation between communication patterns, power interpretations of what is being asked of them.
Although adult men discrepancies, and domestic violence. Journal of Consulting and Clini- and women do not differ in terms of social desirability bias in cal Psychology, 61, Comparative fit indexes in structural models.
Psy-sex-based differences may exist in terms of how individuals chological Bulletin, 98, For instance, male respondents may Bentler, P. EQS structural equations program manual. Encino, interpret a "hit or punch" as a closed-fisted behavior, whereas CA: Multivariate Software, Inc. Bentler, P. Significance tests and goodness A further limitation of this study, and the measure itself, is of fit in the analysis of covariance structures.
Psychological Bulletin, 88, posed by the difficulty of ensuring that the context of conflict is Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Long Eds. Merely counting discrete acts of violence can be This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Observed and reported psychological and physical aggression in young, at-risk couples. Social Develop- lence. Reasons given by adolescent girls for their use of abusive ment, 6, Psychological Assessment, 11, As noted, adolescents often tease and Crick, N.
Gender differences in chil- provoke one another, including dating partners, in an attempt to dren' s normative beliefs about aggression: How do I hurt thee? Let me gain attention or seek connection, and it is difficult to ensure that count the ways. Child Development, 67 3 : As the most negative consequences are the unplanned pregnancy, abortion, early childbearing, sexually transmitted diseases, drug and alcohol abuse, and dropping out of school.
Parents and educators should provide teenagers with relevant information about sexual and romantic relations as well as sex and sexuality. Runhare, T. Mudau, T. Relationship Essay: Effects of Dating at a Young Age In this relationship essay sample, the author has analyzed the effects of dating on young children and teenagers.
Effects of Dating at Young Age Getting into relationships and dating at a young age has a negative impact and adverse effects on young children and teenagers.
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