The swine flu pandemic has become more problematic. The White House will meet with state representatives on the 9th of July to talk about the preparation for the autumn flu season in the US, whilst the UK has focused their response on the H1N1 virus to cope with widespread infection. In the meantime, the southern hemisphere is going into the middle of the winter flu season, and the swine H1N1 virus seems to be replacing the seasonal flu viruses that have been circulating until now. This is related to the seasonal flu vaccine which several companies are still producing. It could cause some problems when the northern hemisphere flu season comes at the end of this year. The flu pandemics of , and showed a high level of seasonal change and also released mild form of the H1N1 virus which circulates through the existing flu virus, H3N2.
So far for H1N1, there have only been a few ominous signs. Ron Fouchier at the University of Rotterdam says that this could spread if it makes the virus more contagious, but the virus may also improve pathogenicity. Also last week, two cases of the H1N1 virus with resistance to the main antiviral drug, Tamiflu, were found in people using the drug.
Another was found in a girl who had never taken the drug, suggesting Tamiflu - resistant to the H1N1 virus might already be in circulation.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet. There is currently a severe problem of 1 in the world, especially both the US and the UK are making strenuous efforts to solve the problem. In the meantime, during the middle of winter flu season, 2. Also, over 98 per cent out of flu cases genotyped in the US were generated by 3.
Whilst seasonal flu viruses usually fade away in 4. There are reports that the H1N1 virus accounts for more than 90 per cent of all flu cases in countries, such as 5. According to Ab Osterhaus, 8 in a regular flu season can be replaced by the pandemic virus. A new virus was found to be resistant to the antiviral drug, 9. Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes on your answer sheet, write. Whilst the world watched in excitement as Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon, planetary scientists were focused on something else. For them, the value of the mission was is the cargo they brought back to earth. By the time Armstrong and Aldrin climbed into the lunar module for the last time, they had gathered 22 kilograms of moon rocks, completely filling a small suitcase.
Over five Apollo crews brought back a total collection of kilograms of material containing 2, samples. The rocks were known at the time as a scientific treasure and they did not disappoint. But his conclusion was wrong.
Some of the rocks looked just like the rocks on earth. Many clues that the lunar rocks contained have taken a couple of years to effectively analyse. Also, some of the conclusions are still debated. A big surprise was the evidence that the early moon was covered by a lot of molten rock.
Nowadays, the smart money is on the idea that the moon was created as a result of something that occurred around 50 million years after the solar system was created when the Earth was in its infancy. From his hypothesis, the earliest Earth ran into a planet that was a similar size to Mars and debris from the collision went into orbit around the Earth which rapidly came together to form the moon.
Before Apollo, planetary scientists watched the collection of objects orbiting the sun like a clockwork mechanism in which collisions were rare and trivial.
Now, it is accepted as being a far more active environment, shuffling, colliding or ejecting. This history of all the inner planets has been shaped by collisions and nowhere is that history more visible than the moon.
READING PASSAGE 1. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. Grey Workers. A. Given the speed at which their workers are growing greyer, employers know surprisingly little about how productive they are. One such method of finding the age of an object is called radiocarbon dating. This method can find the age of any object based on the kind of particles and atoms that are found inside of the object. Depending on what elements the object is composed of, radiocarbon can be a reliable way to find an object's age/5. IELTS Academic Reading test 1. This page will help you practise for the IELTS Academic reading jankossencontemporary.comg: carbon dating.
It never coincided. The moon and, by extension, the Earth must have been caused by a devastating barrage half a billion years after the solar system formed. To cause this process, something big must have been going back to the outer solar system, but what? Surprisingly, this episode in the history of the solar system has come to be known as the last heavy bombardment and ended at roughly the same time as the first signs of life on earth.
So, do the Apollo rocks hide any more secrets? All 2, samples have been researched, and Randy Korotev, a lunar geochemist at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri, says that it is unlikely that there will be anything groundbreaking left to find from them.
READING PASSAGE 2. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. Mission to Collect Materials on the Moon. A. Whilst the world watched in excitement as Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the . Other cultures used more flexible but less permanent surfaces, including animal skins and wood strips. In western culture, the adoption of papyrus was to have a great impact. Sheets of papyrus not only provide an invaluable record of people's daily lives, they can also be dated using carbon-dating techniques. Athfield and her team conducted radiocarbon dating of many of the ancient objects found in the historic site of Angkor Wat. Nancy found the history of Angkor went back to as early as According to historic records, the remains of the Angkor royal family were much younger than that, /5.
However, they may yet keep some more delicate secrets. These techniques have stimulated a rethink of some key dates in lunar history in the past two years. Also, by inference, the creation of the moon itself is estimated to have happened between 20 and 30 million years later than we originally thought, at approximately 4.
Alexander Nemchin with five colleagues in the Cutin University of Technology in Perth, Western Australia also estimated that a lunar zircon was around 4. The Apollo rock samples are not finished answering some of the bigger picture questions.
Can we put together a detailed history of the lava flows that formed the basalts of the lunar seas? Can we discover any samples from deep inside the moon?
Currents there can make shipping treacherous - and one ship bound for ancient Rome never made it. The ship that sank there was a giant cargo vessel measuring nearly feet long. It came to rest about feet below the surface, where it stayed for more than 2, years until divers looking for sponges discovered the wreck a little more than a century ago. Inside the hull were a number of bronze and marble statues.
From the look of things, the ship seemed to be carrying luxury items, probably made in various Greek islands and bound for wealthy patrons in the growing Roman Empire. The statues were retrieved, along with a lot of other unimportant stuff, and stored. Nine months later, an enterprising archaeologist cleared off a layer of organic material from one of the pieces of junk and found that it looked like a gearwheel.
It had inscriptions in Greek characters and seemed to have something to do with astronomy.
The device is so famous that an international conference organized in Athens a couple of weeks ago had only one subject: the Antikythera Mechanism. Every discovery about the device has raised new questions. Who built the device, and for what purpose? Why did the technology behind it disappear for the next thousand years?
What does the device tell us about ancient Greek culture? And does the marvelous construction, and the precise knowledge of the movement of the sun and moon and Earth that it implies, tell us how the ancients grappled with ideas about determinism and human destiny?
To see it on a computer animation makes it mind-boggling.
There is no doubt it was a technological masterpiece. The device was probably built between and BC, and the understanding of astronomy it displays seems to have been based on knowledge developed by the Babylonians around BC, said Mike Edmunds, a professor of astrophysics at Cardiff University in Britain. He led a research team that reconstructed what the gear mechanism would have looked like by using advanced three-dimensional-imaging technology.
The group also decoded a number of the inscriptions. The mechanism explores the relationship between lunar months - the time it takes for the moon to cycle through its phases, say, full moon to the full moon - and calendar years. The gears had to be cut precisely to reflect this complex relationship; 19 calendar years equal lunar months.
By turning the gear mechanism, which included what Edmunds called a beautiful system of epicyclic gears that factored in the elliptical orbit of the moon, a person could check what the sky would have looked like on a date in the past, or how it would appear in the future.
The mechanism was encased in a box with doors in front and back covered with inscriptions - a sort of instruction manual. Inside the front door were pointers indicating the date and the position of the sun, moon and zodiac, while opening the back door revealed the relationship between calendar years and lunar months, and a mechanism to predict eclipses.
TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 05
You turn the handle and you have a date on the front. Charette said the device overturned conventional ideas that the ancient Greeks were primarily ivory tower thinkers who did not deign to muddy their hands with technical stuff. It is a reminder, he said, that while the study of history often focuses on written texts, they can tell us only a fraction of what went on at a particular time.
Imagine a future historian encountering philosophy texts written in our time - and an aircraft engine. The books would tell that researcher what a few scholars were thinking today, but the engine would give them a far better window into how technology influenced our everyday lives.
Charette said it was unlikely that the device was used by practitioners of astrology, then still in its infancy. Given that astronomers of the time already knew how to calculate the positions of the sun and the moon and to predict eclipses without the device, it would have been the equivalent of a device built for a planetarium today - something to spur popular interest or at least claim bragging rights.
Why was the technology that went into the device lost?
The Reading Passage has ten paragraphs A-J. Write the correct letter A-Jin boxes on your answer sheet. An ancient huge sunk 19. The ship loaded with 20. However, an archaeologist found a junk similar to a 21. This inspiring and elaborated device was found to be the first 22 in the world.
Use the information in the passage to match the people listed A-C with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes on your answer sheet. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. The island is, technically speaking, a single massive volcano rising over ten thousand feet from the Pacific Ocean floor.
The island received its most well-known current name, Easter Island, from the Dutch sea captain Jacob Roggeveen who became the first European to visit Easter Sunday, April 5, In the early s, the Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl popularized the idea that the island had been originally settled by advanced societies of Indians from the coast of South America. Extensive archaeological, ethnographic and linguistic research has conclusively shown this hypothesis to be inaccurate.
Questions Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text on page 16? In boxes on your answer sheet, write. Only hospital patients can go on to have transition care. Transition care may be long term or short term. Everyone receiving transition care must contribute to the cost. Transition care at home is only available for patients who live alone. Transition care may be given on a hospital site. You may lose your place in a care home if you have to leave it to receive transition care.
Here are some of the best.
However, the trolley handle feels quite thin and flimsy. B The Lightglide has two external pockets, both of which are zipped and lockable, but the inside pocket does not zip. In tests, we found the contents remain dry when given a good soaking, even around the zips. For carrying there are fabric handles at the top and side. C The Foxton is easy to control across most surfaces. D The Skybag has a single external zipped pocket and another located inside the lid. Your clothes are kept in place by two adjustable straps.
The zips, are easy to grip and they run smoothly around the case. However, this cabin bag felt a little heavy to pull on all but smooth floors, and it was hard to steer compared with some of the other suitcases. E The Travelsure 35 is available in a huge range of fabric designs including leopard print or lipstick kisses.
We test each bag by letting it fall onto a hard. The fabric tore so badly at one of the corners that it was unusable. Questions The text above has five paragraphs, A-E.
Which paragraph mentions the following? Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once.
The zips on this cabin bag may be difficult to use. This cabin bag may be badly damaged if it is dropped. The handles of this cabin bag have a number of different problems.
This cabin bag is very resistant to water. This cabin bag has just one internal zipped pocket. The trolley handle of this cabin bag is adjustable. Parking permits and tickets Staff permits are required to park a motor vehicle other than a motorcycle parked in the cycle bays on campus between 8.
Annual permits can be purchased from the Hospitality Department.
IELTS GENERAL READING TEST 2020 - WITH ANSWETS - MUST SOLVE !
Application forms can be downloaded from the College website. Please inform the Services Administrator of any changes to registration details on telephone ext. Annual car parking permits can be purchased from 20th September and are valid for one academic year from 1st October to 30th June. The annual charges for car parking are displayed on the application form. Vehicles that are in breach of the policy will be issued with a Penalty Charge Notice.
The nominated contractor is responsible for the collection of unpaid PCNs and may use legal action where necessary to recover unpaid PCNs. If issued with a PCN, appeals must be taken up directly with the parking enforcement company details included on the notice not the college.
Disabled parking The college has designated car parking spaces for disabled car drivers. The college will make all reasonable efforts to ensure these parking spaces are used only by drivers who display their blue disabled-parking permits, and a valid pay-and-display or annual permit, as appropriate.
If issues arise concerning the availability of the parking spaces, those concerned should raise the matter with the Domestic Services Department in order to effect a temporary solution. Visitors The College welcomes visitors and provides parking arrangements through pre-arranged permits, which must be displayed in the vehicle. Please contact the Hospitality Department for further information, On Open Days, sections of car parking on campus may be reserved for visitors.
Radiocarbon Dating - The Profile of Nancy Athfield
These are located outside Concorde Building. The nursery staff bays may not be used under any circumstances. Questions Answer the questions below.
Where can you buy parking permits at the college? Which document shows the dates of term time? What is the start date of annual parking permits? Who is responsible for giving out parking fines if you park in the wrong place? What do visitors need to show when parking?
Where can the nursery pick-up point be found? If you are expecting a baby, there are a number of benefit schemes that could help you financially.
Carbon dating ielts reading
However, eligibility differs for each individual scheme. This is a weekly payment, to help make it easier for you to take time off, both before and after the birth of your baby. SMP can be paid for up to 39 weeks. You are entitled to SMP if you have been employed by the same company for at least 26 weeks by the end of the 15th week before your baby is due.
The amount you get depends on how much you earn. You may be entitled to Maternity Allowance if you have been employed or self-employed for at least 26 weeks in the 66 weeks before you are due to give birth.
Carbon dating ielts reading - Is the number one destination for online dating with more marriages than any other dating or personals site. Register and search over 40 million singles: chat. Want to meet eligible single woman who share your zest for life? Although there are several other techniques employed s to estimate the ages of ancient remains, carbon (also known as 14 C) is the most commonly used. The radiocarbon dating method measures the amount of 14 C in organic material in order to ascertain how .
You can find Maternity Allowance forms at antenatal clinics throughout the country. The amount you get will depend on your personal circumstances and income. When your income is being assessed, any child benefit, maintenance payments or Maternity Allowance payments will not be classed as income.